AzerbaijaniEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Cognate with Uyghur -ىش(-ish).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic -yış -yiş -yuş -yüş

-iş

  1. Suffix creating nouns from verbs.[1]
    axtarmaq (to search) + ‎-ış → ‎axtarış (search)
    satmaq (to sell) + ‎-ış → ‎satış (sale)
    oyanmaq (to awake) + ‎-ış → ‎oyanış (awakening)
    girmək (to enter) + ‎-iş → ‎giriş (entrance)
    getmək (to walk, to travel) + ‎-iş → ‎gediş (journey)
    uçmaq (to fly) + ‎-uş → ‎uçuş (flight)
    udmaq (to win) + ‎-uş → ‎uduş (win, gain)
    gülmək (to laugh) + ‎-üş → ‎gülüş (laughter)
    görmək (to see) + ‎-üş → ‎görüş (meeting, encounter)
    söymək (to curse, to scold) + ‎-üş → ‎söyüş (curse, foul language)
    yaşamaq (to live) + ‎-yış → ‎yaşayış
    anlamaq (to understand) + ‎-yış → ‎anlayış
Usage notesEdit

A notable irregularity is yürümək, taking :

yürümək (to go) + ‎ → ‎yürüş (march)
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic

-iş

  1. Reciprocative suffix.[2]
    baxmaq + ‎-iş → ‎baxışmaq
    bitmək + ‎-iş → ‎bitişmək
    çəkmək + ‎-iş → ‎çəkişmək
    vurmaq (to hit, punch) + ‎-iş → ‎vuruşmaq (to battle, fight)
    döymək (to beat) + ‎-iş → ‎döyüşmək (to fight, combat)
    yürümək + ‎ → ‎yürüşmək
    tanımaq + ‎ → ‎tanışmaq
Usage notesEdit

Verbs with monosyllabic vowel-ending stems generally take a y before the suffixes -il, -in, or -iş:

demək (to say) + ‎-iş → ‎deyişmək (to argue)
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Širalijev, Mamedaga; Sevortjan, Ervand (1971), “-iş”, in Grammatika azerbajdžanskovo jazyka. Fonetika, morfologija i sintaksis. [Grammar of Azerbaijani language. Phonetics, morphology, syntax.], Baku: Elm, page 54.
  2. ^ Širalijev, Mamedaga; Sevortjan, Ervand (1971), “-iş”, in Grammatika azerbajdžanskovo jazyka. Fonetika, morfologija i sintaksis. [Grammar of Azerbaijani language. Phonetics, morphology, syntax.], Baku: Elm, page 96.

TurkishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـش(-iş).

SuffixEdit

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic -yış -yiş -yuş -yüş

-iş

  1. A suffix forming nouns from verbs.
    bakmak (to look) + ‎-ış → ‎bakış (look)
    inmek (to land) + ‎-iş → ‎iniş (landing)
    görmek (to see) + ‎-üş → ‎görüş (sight)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـش(-iş).

SuffixEdit

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic

-iş

  1. A suffix forming reciprocative verbs.
    bakmak (to look) + ‎-ış → ‎bakışmak (to look at each other)
    sevmek (to like, love) + ‎-iş → ‎sevişmek (to make love)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-iş

  1. A suffix forming terms of endearment.
    kedi (cat) + ‎ → ‎kediş (kitty)
Usage notesEdit
  • Stritcly speaking, doesn't adhere to a vowel harmony rule and the variant that will give the euphonious result is chosen almost arbitrarily. Tatlış and tatliş (from tatlı) coexist. For some given names there are multiple affectionate alternative forms ending in -oş, -iş, -üş, etc.
Derived termsEdit