Azerbaijani edit

Etymology 1 edit

Cognate with Uyghur-ىش(-ish).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic -yış -yiş -yuş -yüş

-iş

  1. Suffix creating nouns from verbs.[1]
    axtarmaq (to search) + ‎-ış → ‎axtarış (search)
    satmaq (to sell) + ‎-ış → ‎satış (sale)
    oyanmaq (to awake) + ‎-ış → ‎oyanış (awakening)
    girmək (to enter) + ‎-iş → ‎giriş (entrance)
    getmək (to walk, to travel) + ‎-iş → ‎gediş (journey)
    uçmaq (to fly) + ‎-uş → ‎uçuş (flight)
    udmaq (to win) + ‎-uş → ‎uduş (win, gain)
    gülmək (to laugh) + ‎-üş → ‎gülüş (laughter)
    görmək (to see) + ‎-üş → ‎görüş (meeting, encounter)
    söymək (to curse, to scold) + ‎-üş → ‎söyüş (curse, foul language)
    yaşamaq (to live) + ‎-yış → ‎yaşayış
    anlamaq (to understand) + ‎-yış → ‎anlayış
Usage notes edit

A notable irregularity is yürümək, taking :

yürümək (to go) + ‎ → ‎yürüş (march)
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic

-iş

  1. Reciprocative suffix.[2]
    baxmaq + ‎-iş → ‎baxışmaq
    bitmək + ‎-iş → ‎bitişmək
    çəkmək + ‎-iş → ‎çəkişmək
    vurmaq (to hit, punch) + ‎-iş → ‎vuruşmaq (to battle, fight)
    döymək (to beat) + ‎-iş → ‎döyüşmək (to fight, combat)
    yürümək + ‎ → ‎yürüşmək
    tanımaq + ‎ → ‎tanışmaq
Usage notes edit

Verbs with monosyllabic vowel-ending stems generally take a y before the suffixes -il, -in, or -iş:

demək (to say) + ‎-iş → ‎deyişmək (to argue)
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Şirəliyev, Məmmədağa; Sevortyan, Ervand (1971), “-iş”, in Grammatika azerbajdžanskovo jazyka. Fonetika, morfologija i sintaksis. [Grammar of Azerbaijani language. Phonetics, morphology, syntax.], Baku: Elm, page 54.
  2. ^ Şirəliyev, Məmmədağa; Sevortyan, Ervand (1971), “-iş”, in Grammatika azerbajdžanskovo jazyka. Fonetika, morfologija i sintaksis. [Grammar of Azerbaijani language. Phonetics, morphology, syntax.], Baku: Elm, page 96.

Crimean Tatar edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Turkic *-iĺč.

Suffix edit

-iş

  1. Derived reciprocal forms of verbs.
    tapmaq (to find) + ‎-ış → ‎tapışmaq (to find each other)

Turkish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Ottoman Turkishـش(-iş), from Old Anatolian Turkishـش(), from Proto-Turkic *-iĺ.

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic -yış -yiş -yuş -yüş

-iş (noun-forming suffixes)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    bakmak (to look) + ‎-ış → ‎bakış (look)
    inmek (to land) + ‎-iş → ‎iniş (landing)
    görmek (to see) + ‎-üş → ‎görüş (sight)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Ottoman Turkishـش(-iş), from Old Anatolian Turkishـش(-iş), from Proto-Turkic *-iĺč.

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ış -iş -uş -üş
postvocalic

-iş

  1. Derived reciprocal forms of verbs.
    bakmak (to look) + ‎-ış → ‎bakışmak (to look at each other)
    sevmek (to like, love) + ‎-iş → ‎sevişmek (to make love)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-iş

  1. A suffix forming terms of endearment.
    kedi (cat) + ‎ → ‎kediş (kitty)
Usage notes edit
  • Stritcly speaking, -iş doesn't adhere to a vowel harmony rule and the variant that will give the euphonious result is chosen almost arbitrarily. Tatlış and tatliş (from tatlı) coexist. For some given names there are multiple affectionate alternative forms ending in -oş, -iş, -üş, etc.
Derived terms edit