See also: lle and llé


Alternative formsEdit


From Proto-Finnic *-lek or *-llek, related to and probably a variant of *-len or *-llen (whence dialectal -len, -llen), which is related to *-sen (illative case suffix) and is composed of -l(l)- (external locative suffix) + Proto-Uralic *-ŋ (lative or dative suffix) (with an epenthetic *-e-).

It is not known whether the short *-l- or long *-ll- is original. If short, the long -l- may be due to analogy with -lla, -lta. The answer likely depends on the origin of the -l- itself. The traditional theory posits that it comes from the toponymic suffix *-la, but more recently it has been proposed that it is in fact a reduction of *ülä (upper, above); thus *...n *ül(ä)-nä > *...n-l-nä > *...lnä > *...llä.[1] The initial genitive ending is lost by reduction of a phonotactically impossible sequence, but not in *...n-l-en > *...ll-en, hence *-llen.


  • IPA(key): /-lːeˣ/, [-lːe̞(ʔ)]
  • IPA(key): /-lːe/, [-lːe̞] (dialectal)



  1. forms the allative case of a noun, adjective, numeral or pronoun


  1. ^ Aikio, Ante & Ylikoski, Jussi. The origin of the Finnic l-cases. Fenno-Ugrica Suecana Nova Series 15 (2016). pp. 59-158