See also: Appendix:Variations of "na"
- -da- (commonly used alternative)
- Forms the past tense in verbs.
- To indicate the recent past, the high tone is shifted off the tense marker to the next syllable. Prescriptive grammars state that only the form -na- can be used this way, not -da-.
- Among most speakers, -na- and -da- are in free variation. The form -da- is most common in Malawi's Central Region, and was formerly designated as the standard.
- Forms the present tense in verbs.