Appendix:Latin fifth declension

Description edit

Latin nouns of the fifth declension end in -ēs in the nominative singular, with a genitive in -ēī (after -i-) or in -ĕī (after consonant), and have an invariable stem. Other than rēs, spēs, and fidēs, fifth-declension nouns generally end more specifically in -iēs. Some nouns show variation between fifth-declension forms in -iēs and first-declension forms in -ia.

All Latin words of the fifth declension are feminine except diēs (which was originally masculine, but came to be used in some circumstances as a feminine) and derivatives of diēs such as meridiēs.

Declension paradigm edit

Case Singular Plural
Stem in
iēs
-ēs
nominative -ēs -ēs
genitive -ēī -eī -ērum
dative -ēī -eī -ēbus
accusative -em -ēs
ablative -ēbus
vocative -ēs -ēs

Other than diēs and rēs, most fifth declension nouns are unused or uncommon in the plural.[1] In particular, genitive plural forms other than diērum, rērum and dative/ablative plural forms other than diēbus, rēbus are rare, although some occur; nominative or accusative plural forms in -ēs are somewhat less rare.

There is a closed set of locative singular forms in -ē, mainly temporal expressions: examples include hodiē, perendiē, prīdiē.[1] When used in isolation, forms like these can be analyzed as adverbs rather than nouns: however, their original status as locative-case nouns is shown by expressions that contain an agreeing adjective in the locative case. Aulus Gellius (Noctes Atticae 10.24) describes expressions such as "diequinti"/"diequinte" as compound adverbs ("adverbio copulate") and attributes their use to to the time of Cicero and his predecessors.

Examples edit

Ending in -iēs:

Ending in consonant + -ēs:

See also edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Allen, Joseph Henry; Greenough, James B. (1903) Allen and Greenough's New Latin grammar for schools and colleges: founded on comparative grammar, Boston: Ginn and Company, § 98