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(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₁ésh₂r̥)
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructionsEdit


On the basis of plene spelling in Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒄯 (e-eš-ḫar) Melchert (1984: 92) reconstructs form *h₁ḗsh₂r̥ which is refuted by Kloekhorst (2008: 259).

The full-grade suffix syllable is visible in Latin san-guen < *h₁sh₂en-. Sanskrit अस्नस् (asnás) is a secondary innovation and not evidence for PIE **h₁esh₂nós with zero grade in the suffix syllable and accented full grade in the ending, and Hittite genitive singular 𒅖𒄩𒈾𒀸 (išḫanāš) instead reflects PIE *h₁esh₂enós with secondary hysterodynamic accentuation of an original proterodynamic word (similar to 𒌓𒋻 (uttar, word) and 𒁁𒋻 (pattar, basket)).


*h₁ésh₂r̥ n[2]

  1. (flowing) blood

Usage notesEdit

PIE distinguished two roots for "blood", depending on whether it was found inside the body or outside. The former was *h₁ésh₂r̥, the latter *krewh₂-. The lexical distinction between the two is argued to indicate two distinct metaphorical sets, which have been preserved in various derivatives and extensions in the daughters.

The root *h₁ésh₂r̥ has been associated with the notion of life-giving bodily fluid, and also with the patrilineal line in kinship terminology.

On the other hand, the root *krewh₂- yielded words signifying aggression (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crūdēlis (cruel) and Ancient Greek κρούω (kroúō, to beat, whip, crush)) and dying, seen metaphorically in terms for the hardening (or freezing) of "outside blood" (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crusta (crust), Old Irish crúaid (hard), Latvian kreve (coagulated blood) and Ancient Greek κρύος (krúos, cold)). The semantic field was thus associated with wounding, death, and drying out/hardening of the body.


Athematic, proterokinetic
singular collective
nominative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
genitive *h₁sh₂éns *h₁sh₂nés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
vocative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
accusative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
genitive *h₁sh₂éns *h₁sh₂nés
ablative *h₁sh₂éns *h₁sh₂nés
dative *h₁sh₂éney *h₁sh₂néy
locative *h₁sh₂én, *h₁sh₂éni *h₁sh₂én, *h₁sh₂éni
instrumental *h₁sh₂énh₁ *h₁sh₂néh₁


Derived termsEdit



  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill