This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructionsEdit


On the basis of plene spelling in Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒄯 ‎(e-eš-ḫar) Melchert (1984: 92) reconstructs form *h₁ḗsh₂r̥ which is refuted by Kloekhorst (2008: 259).

The full-grade suffix syllable is visible in Latin san-guen < *h₁sh₂en-. Sanskrit अस्नस् ‎(asnás) is a secondary innovation and not evidence for PIE **h₁esh₂nós with zero grade in the suffix syllable and accented full grade in the ending, and Hittite genitive singular 𒅖𒄩𒈾𒀸 ‎(išḫanāš) instead reflects PIE *h₁esh₂enós with secondary hysterodynamic accentuation of an original proterodynamic word (similar to 𒌓𒋻 ‎(uttar, word) and 𒁁𒋻 ‎(pattar, basket)).


*h₁ésh₂r̥ m ‎(oblique stem *h₁sh₂én-)

  1. (flowing) blood

Usage notesEdit

PIE distinguished two roots for "blood", depending on whether it was found inside the body or outside. The former was *h₁ésh₂r̥, the latter *krewh₂-. The lexical distinction between the two is argued to indicate two distinct metaphorical sets, which have been preserved in various derivatives and extensions in the daughters.

The root *krewh₂- yielded words signifying aggression (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crūdēlis ‎(cruel) and Ancient Greek κρούω ‎(kroúō, to beat, whip, crush)) and dying, seen metaphorically in terms for the hardening (or freezing) of "outside blood" (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crusta ‎(crust), Old Irish crúaid ‎(hard), Latvian kreve ‎(coagulated blood) and Ancient Greek κρύος ‎(krúos, cold)). The semantic field was thus associated with wounding, death, and drying out/hardening of the body.

On the other hand, the root *h₁ésh₂r̥ has been associated with the notion of life-giving bodily fluid, and also with the patrilineal line in kinship terminology.


Proterodynamic r/n-stem.


Derived termsEdit



  • Michiel de Vaan (2008), Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
  • Alwin Kloekhorst (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 256ff
  • Craig H. Melchert, (1984), Studies in Hittite Historical Phonology, Göttingen.
  • J. P. Mallory, D. Q. Adams (eds.) (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 71