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(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₁nómn̥)
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Kloekhorst 2008:518 argues for a *-mn̥ derivative of the root *h₃neh₃- (to name), reflected in Hittite [script needed] (ḫannai-, to sue, judge) (originally "to call to court") and Ancient Greek ὄνομαι (ónomai, to blame, scold, insult) (with a semantic shift comparable to English to call names).

Within the disputed Indo-Uralic theory, it has been connected with the Uralic root *nime, whence Finnish nimi, Estonian nimi and Hungarian név.


Sources disagree on the reconstruction of this word. Some reconstruct it with initial *h₃- because of Greek ὄνομα (ónoma), ὄνυμα (ónuma), but the lack of an initial laryngeal in Hittite 𒆷𒀀𒈠𒀭 (lāman) might suggest *h₁ (although the fate of word-initial *h₃ in Anatolian is unclear and controversial), and Armenian անուն (anun) could be from either one. The Greek o- could be due to assimilation to the following o-, just as in ὀδούς (odoús, tooth), from *odonts, assimilated from *edonts, from *h₁dont-, although this is now reconstructed with *h₃ by some authorities. Medial *-eh₃- is sometimes reconstructed on the basis of length in some Dutch and Low German denominal verbs, but these are more likely to be late forms using the Germanic a/ō ablaut found also in class VI strong verbs (and in Indo-Iranian it could have arisen by Brugmann's law, and in Latin by the analogy cōg-nōmen (surname) : co-gnōscō (to know), from PIE *ǵneh₃-).

Cowgill and Beekes (1969) have argued that initial e-/o- of Greek and inital a- of Armenian are simply prothetic vowels, i.e. not of laryngeal origin, which would then render the reconstruction as *nómn̥.

The original paradigm is also somewhat difficult to reconstruct precisely; it might be proterokinetic ablauting *h₁nómn̥ ~ *h₁n̥méns, or just acrostatic with or without zero grade in weak cases. The Tocharian forms seem to come from *(h₁)nem-, which could be from the oblique form in an acrostatic paradigm.


*h₁nómn̥ or *h₃nómn̥ or *h₁néh₃mn̥ or *h₃néh₃mn̥ n

  1. name
    *h₁nómn̥ dʰéh₁the gave a name


Athematic, acrostatic
singular collective
nominative *h₁nómn̥ *h₁némō
genitive *h₁némn̥s *h₁nm̥nés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *h₁nómn̥ *h₁nómnih₁ *h₁némō
vocative *h₁nómn̥ *h₁nómnih₁ *h₁némō
accusative *h₁nómn̥ *h₁nómnih₁ *h₁némō
genitive *h₁némn̥s *? *h₁nm̥nés
ablative *h₁némn̥s *? *h₁nm̥nés
dative *h₁némney *? *h₁nm̥néy
locative *h₁némn̥, *h₁némni *? *h₁n̥mén, *h₁n̥méni
instrumental *h₁némn̥h₁ *? *h₁nm̥néh₁



  • Stüber, Karin (1998). The Historical Morphology of n-Stems in Celtic. Maynooth Studies in Celtic Linguistics III. Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, National University of Ireland, pp. 53–59. →ISBN.
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 282ff