Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂ŕ̥tḱos

(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₂ŕ̥tḱos)
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

The word is either a nominalization of an unattested adjective *h₂r̥tḱós(destroying) or a derivative of *h₂rétḱ-os ~ *h₂rétḱ-es-(destruction) (cf. Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬱𐬀𐬵(rašah), Sanskrit रक्षस्(rákṣas)).

In late PIE (i.e. post-Anatolian period) the word metathesized into *h₂ŕ̥ḱtos which phonetically surfaced as *h₂ŕ̥ḱþos following the rule that when dental and velar occlusives appear syllable-initially, they metathesize tkkt and turn into a thorn cluster denoted ḱþ. See Wikipedia for a discussion of these clusters' makeup.

NounEdit

*h₂ŕ̥tḱos m ‎(non-ablauting)

  1. bear

InflectionEdit

Thematic
singular
nominative *h₂ŕ̥tḱos
genitive *h₂ŕ̥tḱosyo
singular dual plural
nominative *h₂ŕ̥tḱos *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *h₂ŕ̥tḱoes
vocative *h₂ŕ̥tḱe *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *h₂ŕ̥tḱoes
accusative *h₂ŕ̥tḱom *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *h₂ŕ̥tḱons
genitive *h₂ŕ̥tḱosyo *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱooHom
ablative *h₂ŕ̥tḱead *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱomos
dative *h₂ŕ̥tḱoey *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱomos
locative *h₂ŕ̥tḱey, *h₂ŕ̥tḱoy *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱoysu
instrumental *h₂ŕ̥tḱoh₁ *? *h₂ŕ̥tḱōys

DescendantsEdit

  • Albanian:
    • Old Albanian: ar (< shortening of *arth, where -th was mistaken for a diminutive suffix; *arth < *artsa < *arḱos)
      • Albanian: ari (< back-formation from arinj (pl.), inherited plural of OAlb ar), arushë (feminine)
  • Anatolian:[1]
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic:
    • Lithuanian: irštvà(bear’s den) (< *h₂ŕ̥tḱo/eh₂)
  • Celtic: *artos (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *árktos
  • Indo-Iranian: *Hr̥(t)ćás (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic: *orssos
    • Latin: ursus (see there for further descendants)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “ḫartakka-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, page 369