This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to cut
  2. wound; injury
  3. to fester

Derived termsEdit

  • *swer- ‎(root present)
  • *swer-wos
  • *swer-tó- or *swer-dʰo-
    • Germanic: (possibly) *swerdą ‎(sword)
  • Unsorted formations:



  1. to resound
  2. to speak loudly
  3. to swear

Derived termsEdit

  • *swér- ‎(root present)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: [script needed] ‎(svárati)
  • *swor-ye- ‎(o-grade ye-present)
  • *swor-eh₂
    • Germanic: *swarō ‎(statement, oath, vow)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: [script needed] ‎(vratá, pledge, vow)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: (possibly) surdus ‎(deaf)
      • Latin: (perhaps) susurrus ‎(whisper, rustle)
      • Oscan: (possibly) [Term?] ‎(sverruneí, speaker?, dative singular)


  1. ^ Guus Kroonen (2013), Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
  2. ^ "zweren" in M. Philippa - Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands, Amsterdam University Press 2009 (etymologiebank)
  3. ^ Michiel de Vaan (2008), Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers