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(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Kartvelian/ɣwino-)
This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Probably a borrowing from Proto-Indo-European *we/oi(H)nyo-,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] via — according to some — Proto-Armenian *ɣʷeinyo-,[8][9][10][11][12] the ancestor of Old Armenian գինի (gini).

Martirosyan describes the sound change from Proto-Indo-European *w → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷ → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣw as impeccable[8] and says it is also observed in Proto-Indo-European *wi(H)- → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷi- (→ Old Armenian գի (gi, juniper)) → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwi- → Georgian ღვია (ɣvia, juniper). According to others, however, the term was borrowed into Proto-Kartvelian directly from Proto-Indo-European;[2] for example, Klimov (1998) agrees with the ultimate Proto-Indo-European origin of the word but denies derivation from Old Armenian գինի (gini), citing Diakonoff: "It cannot go back to Armenian gini because the change *g probably must have been accomplished there long before the first Kartvelian-Armenian contacts in the 7th–6th centuries B.C.".

Some scholars have argued the native Kartvelian origin of the word. For example, G. Tsereteli argued that the Proto-Indo-European *wóyh₁nom was in fact borrowed from Kartvelian via Semitic,[13] which has been accepted by other scientists.[14][15] Fähnrich, rejecting the Indo-European origin also considered the word to be a native South Caucasian formation derived from the Proto-Kartvelian verbal root *ɣun- (to bend) (whence Georgian ღუნვა (ɣunva), გადაღუნავს (gadaɣunavs), etc).[16]

The ending of Svan ღვინ-ელ (ɣvin-el), ღვინ-ა̈ლ (ɣvin-äl) represents a petrified diminutive affix.



  1. wine



  1. ^ Gamkrelidze, Th. V.; Ivanov, V. V. (1995) Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans. A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture. Part I: The Text (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 80), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 560
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Sound of Indo-European: Phonetics, Phonemics, and Morphophonemics, p. 505+
  3. ^ Asya Pereltsvaig, Martin W. Lewis (2015). The Indo-European Controversy, Cambridge University Press, p. 193-195
  4. ^ Klimov, G. A. (1964), “ɣwino”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ kartvelʹskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Russian), Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, pages 203–204
  5. ^ Klimov, Georgij A. (1998), “*ɣwino-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 227
  6. ^ Yoël L. Arbeitman (2000), The Asia Minor Connexion: Studies on the Pre-Greek Languages in Memory of Charles Carter, Peeters Publishers.
  7. ^ Anna Siewierska (1998), Constituent Order in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  8. 8.0 8.1 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “gini”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 214
  9. ^ Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971), “գինի”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume I, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 559
  10. ^ Starostin, S. A. (2005), “*ɣwino-”, in Kartvelian etymological database compiled on the basis of G. Klimov's and Fähnrich-Sarjveladze's etymological dictionaries of Kartvelian languages
  11. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 1059
  12. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (2017), “Armenian”, in Mate Kapović, editor, The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, page 429
  13. ^ Giorgi Tsereteli (1972) Eastern Philosophy, Tbilisi: Tbilisi State University press
  14. ^ Anna Meskhi (August, 2005), “The Totem and the Old World. The Caucasus - The Mediterranean - The Pyrenees: Review”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], archived from the original on 2011, retrieved 27 June 2016
  15. ^ Alvaro C. Jimenez (2008) Understanding Wine[2], page 3
  16. ^ Fähnrich, Heinz (2007), “*ɣwin-”, in Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in German), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 486