This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Borrowed into Proto-Kartvelian from Proto-Indo-European[1][2][3][4][5][6] *we/oi(H)nyo-, via — according to some — Proto-Armenian[7][8][9][10] *ɣʷeinyo-, the ancestor of Old Armenian գինի ‎(gini).

Martirosyan describes the sound change from Proto-Indo-European *w → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷ → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣw as impeccable[7] and says it is also observed in Proto-Indo-European *wi(H)- → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷi- (→ Old Armenian գի ‎(gi, juniper)) → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwi- → Georgian ღვია ‎(ɣvia, juniper). According to others, however, the term was borrowed into Proto-Kartvelian directly from Proto-Indo-European;[2] for example, Klimov (1998) agrees with the ultimate Proto-Indo-European origin of the word but denies derivation from Old Armenian գինի ‎(gini), citing Diakonoff: "It cannot go back to Armenian gini because the change *g probably must have been accomplished there long before the first Kartvelian-Armenian contacts in the 7th–6th centuries B.C.".

According to Fähnrich, the term was not borrowed from Indo-European at all but is a native South Caucasian word derived from the Proto-Kartvelian verbal root *ɣun- ‎(to bend)[11].

The ending of Svan ღვინ-ელ ‎(ɣvin-el), ღვინ-ა̈ლ ‎(ɣvin-äl) represents a petrified diminutive affix.



  1. wine