Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/tsa ~ za

Not to be confused with *tsa ‎(salt).
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tsa (Chou, 1972); *tsjəɣ ~ dzjəɣ (Coblin, 1986), *tsə (Schuessler, 2007)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *tsa-n ~ za-n ("child"), *m-dza-k ("to love") (Matisoff, STEDT); *za (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987); *tsa ⪤ *za (LaPolla, 1987)


  1. child, son, offspring; grandson; relatives; nephew/niece
  2. to come forth (as child at birth) - perhaps the original meaning
  3. (prenasalised) to love, to be loving


  • Old Chinese:
    /*tsəʔ/ (B-S), /*ʔslɯʔ/ (B-S) ("child")
    ~ , /*tsˁəʔ/ (B-S, unlisted), /*ʔslɯːʔ, *srɯː/ (B-S) ("(Southern dialect) child")
    /*mə-dzə(ʔ)-s/ (B-S), /*zlɯ/ (B-S) ("to bear; to give birth; to breed; to love; character")

       Burmese:   ‎(ca., writing, letter, paper, document)
          Vietnamese:  chữ ‎(writing, letter)

    /*dzə/ (B-S), /*zɯ/ (B-S) ("loving, kind")
    /*tsə/ (B-S), /*ʔsɯ/ (B-S) ("to grow, to breed, to propagate, to bring about, to increase")
    /*tsə, *dzə/ (B-S, unlisted), /*ʔsɯ, *zɯ/ (B-S) ("to breed, to propagate")
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions: 子-bronze.svg - "child")
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions: 字-bronze.svg - "child under roof > to bear, to give birth")
    • Middle Chinese: /t͡sɨX/, , /t͡sʌiX/, /d͡zɨH/, /d͡zɨ/, , /t͡sɨ/

         Japanese:   (, shi)
            Korean:   ‎(ja) (, ja)
            Vietnamese:  tử

         Japanese:   (, ji)
            Korean:   ‎(ja) (, ja)
            Vietnamese:  tự

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /t͡sz̩²¹⁴/, "child; diminutive"), , (zǎi, /t͡saɪ̯²¹⁴/, "young animal"), (, /t͡sz̩⁵¹/, "character"), (, /t͡sʰz̩³⁵/, "kind"), , (, /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/, "to breed")
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: fa ‎(offspring, child; nephew, niece)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ཚ་བོ ‎(tsha bo, grandson, grandchild; nephew), བཙའ་བ ‎(btsa' ba, to bear, to bring forth, to give birth; to be born), མཛའ་བ ‎(mdza' ba, amicable, intimate, close, loving)
    • Newar
    • Mahakiranti
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: သား ‎(sa:, son, child, offspring), ‎(ca., to have tender regard for, to feel for)
      • Loloish
        /*ʒa²/ (Hansson, 1989)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): ꍶꌺ ‎(chyt sse, baby goat)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Northern): ꓤꓽ ‎(, son, offspring)

See alsoEdit

  • *m/s-ŋa-j ‎(small; inferior; offspring)
  • *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ ‎(to live, to be born, raw, to give birth)
  • *krwəj ‎(son-in-law, daughter-in-law)
  • *maːk ‎(son-in-law; genitals)
  • Proto-Mon-Khmer: *kuun ~ kuən ‎(child) - source of the word "child, son" (e.g. ) in some Southern Chinese dialects, in place of descendants from common ST *tsa.