Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/tsa ~ za

(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/tsa ~ za)
Not to be confused with *tsa (salt).
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tsa (Chou, 1972); *tsjəɣ ~ dzjəɣ (Coblin, 1986), *tsə (Schuessler, 2007)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *tsa-n ~ za-n ("child"), *m-dza-k ("to love") (Matisoff, STEDT); *za (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987); *tsa ⪤ *za (LaPolla, 1987)


  1. child, son, offspring; grandson; relatives; nephew/niece
  2. to come forth (as child at birth) - perhaps the original meaning
  3. (prenasalised) to love, to be loving


  • Old Chinese:
    /*tsəʔ/ (B-S), /*ʔslɯʔ/ (B-S) ("child")
    ~ , /*tsˁəʔ/ (B-S, unlisted), /*ʔslɯːʔ, *srɯː/ invalid IPA characters (*) (B-S) ("(Southern dialect) child")
    /*mə-dzə(ʔ)-s/ (B-S), /*zlɯ/ (B-S) ("to bear; to give birth; to breed; to love; character")

       Burmese:  စာ (ca, writing, letter, paper, document)
          Vietnamese:  chữ (writing, letter)

    /*dzə/ (B-S), /*zɯ/ (B-S) ("loving, kind")
    /*tsə/ (B-S), /*ʔsɯ/ (B-S) ("to grow, to breed, to propagate, to bring about, to increase")
    /*tsə, *dzə/ invalid IPA characters (*) (B-S, unlisted), /*ʔsɯ, *zɯ/ invalid IPA characters (*) (B-S) ("to breed, to propagate")
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions:   - "child")
    ( in bronzeware inscriptions:   - "child under roof > to bear, to give birth")
    • Middle Chinese: /t͡sɨX/ invalid IPA characters (X), , /t͡sʌiX/ invalid IPA characters (X), /d͡zɨH/ invalid IPA characters (H), /d͡zɨ/, , /t͡sɨ/

         Japanese:   (, ​shi)
            Korean:   (, ja)
            Vietnamese:  tử

         Japanese:   (, ​ji)
            Korean:   (, ja)
            Vietnamese:  tự

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /t͡sz̩²¹⁴/, "child; diminutive"), , (zǎi, /t͡saɪ̯²¹⁴/, "young animal"), (, /t͡sz̩⁵¹/, "character"), (, /t͡sʰz̩³⁵/, "kind"), , (, /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/, "to breed")
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: fa (offspring, child; nephew, niece)
  • Himalayish
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: သား (sa:, son, child, offspring), စာ (ca, to have tender regard for, to feel for)
      • Loloish
        /*ʒa²/ (Hansson, 1989)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): ꍶꌺ (chyt sse, baby goat)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Northern): ꓤꓽ (, son, offspring)

See alsoEdit