Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kъnjiga(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Slavic/kъnjiga)
There are four theories about its origin:
- Either from Old High German kenning (“symbol, sign”) or from a different Germanic source (compare Gothic 𐌺𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 (kunnan, “to know”) and Old Norse kunna (“to know”)).
- Alternatively, from Akkadian 𒁾 (kunukku, “seal-cylinder, kunukku”) or [script needed] (kanikku, “sealed object: document, sack bulla, etc.”), via Old Armenian կնիք (knikʿ, “seal”) and Turkic.
- A Chinese origin, from 卷 (Middle Chinese /kɣiuᴇnX, kɣiuᴇnH/ < Old Chinese /*krorʔ/ ("to roll up"), /*kror-s/ ("scroll")) via Proto-Turkic *küiniŋ, has also been suggested, as paper was invented in China in about the 1st century AD. However this seems less likely, due to the likely temporal precedence of Proto-Slavic over Early Middle Chinese and the large spatial separation of the donor and recipient languages. Speaking in favor of this etymology is, however, Hungarian könyv (“book”) (reflecting hypothetical Pre-Hungarian *künig), which is much more clearly derived from Turkic *küiniŋ and cannot be derived from the Slavic forms.
- Finally, Polish Slavicist Aleksander Brückner considers it to be a native word derived from Proto-Slavic *kъnъ (“trunk of a tree”) with the suffix -iga (compare Slovene veriga (“chain”), from Proto-Indo-European *ver- (“tie”)). The sense development would thus be similar to German Buch and English book, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂ǵos (“beech”), or to Latin liber, from earlier *luber, a cognate of Proto-Slavic *lubъ (“tree bark”).
Declension of *kъnjiga (hard a-stem)
- East Slavic:
- South Slavic:
- West Slavic:
- Fasmer, Maks (1964–1973), “книга”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačev O. N., Moscow: Progress
- Trubačev O. N., editor (1987), “*kъniga”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 13, Moscow: Nauka, page 203f
- Cyganenko, G. B. (1989), “книга”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), 2nd edition, Kiev: Radjansʹka škola, page 179–180
- Černyx, P. Ja. (1999), “книга”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, 3rd reprint edition, Moscow: Russkij jazyk, page 406
- Abajev, V. I. (1958), “ḱinyg | kinugæ, kiwnugæ”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 596
- Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979), “կնիք”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume 2, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, published 1926–1935, page 609
- Berneker, Erich (1908–1913) Slavisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume I, Heidelberg: Winter, page 664