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This appendix lists how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) corresponds to Tagalog pronunciation in Wiktionary entries.

VowelsEdit

IPA Example Notes
/a/ ama father Usually becomes a /ɐ/ in unstressed positions.
/ɛ/ eroplano bed (American English accent)
/i/ ipis machine
/o/ relo soul (American English accent)
/u/ upo flute

Spoken Tagalog often considers e and i, and o and u as allophones, and Tagalog, like other Philippine languages, on pre-Hispanic times, only has three vowels.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar/dental Post-alveolar/palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
Stop /p/, /b/ /t/, /d/ /k/, /ɡ/ /ʔ/
Affricate /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/, /d͡ʒ/
Fricative /s/ /ʃ/ /x/ /h/
Approximant /l/ /j/ /w/, /ɰ/
Rhotic /ɾ/

Letter-sound (grapheme-phoneme) correspondenceEdit

Letter/diphthong IPA Example English meaning
hyphen (-), circumfix, grave accent, or none /ʔ/ pag-ibig (on word boundary between consonant and vowel), batya (stress on vowel, and final glottal stop), bata (vowel and glottal stop), apoy (initial) love, basin, child, fire
A /a/ ama father
B, V (proper nouns only) /b/ bundok, Victor mountain
K, C (in proper nouns from Spanish and English, and obsolete forms, except before E and I), Q (in proper nouns from Spanish and Spanish-based transcriptions of Tagalog, before E and I only) /k/ kamay, Carlos, Quiapo hand, Carlos (given name or surname), Quiapo (district of Manila)
D /d/ dilaw yellow
Dy, J (in proper nouns from English and other languages) /dj/ [d͡ʒ] dyip, Jennifer jeepney, Jennifer (name)
E /ɛ/ eroplano airplane
G /ɡ/ gabi night
H, J (in proper nouns from Spanish and other languages) /h/ halik, Jose kiss, Jose (given name or surname)
I /i/ ilaw light
L /l/ lamok mosquito
M /m/ mangga mango
N /n/ nanay mother
Ny, Niy, Ñ /ɲ/ kanya, niya Niño he (3rd person singular oblique), he (3rd person singular ergative), Niño (name)
Ng /ŋ/ ngipin teeth
O /o/ bago new
P, F (in proper nouns, and some loanwords from other Philippine languages using F only) /p/ pula, Fernando red, Fernando (first or last name)
R /ɾ/ daliri finger
S, C (in proper nouns, before I and E), Z /s/ sakit, Cecilia, Rizal sickness, Cecilia (name), Rizal (last name, toponym)
Sy, Siy /sj/ [ʃ] siya (common colloquial pronunciation) he (3rd person singular absolutive)
t /t/ tao person, man
Ts, Ch /t͡ʃ/ tsiko, Tsina, Charlie sapodilla, China, Charlie
Ty, Tiy /tj/ [t͡ʃ] kutya, tiyaga mockery,
U /u/ ulan rain
W /w/ walis broom
y /j/ yaya nanny

StressEdit

Tagalog uses a stress accent combining stress and glottalization to distinguish homonyms. Stress is implied in the penultimate (second to last) syllables. Vowels are lengthened in open syllables when stressed, except in final positions.