Borrowed from Irish Gael, Gaol, from earlier Gaoidheal, from Middle Irish Gaídel, from Old Irish Goídel (“Irishman”), a loanword from Old Welsh Guoidel (“wild man, warrior”) (also recorded as a personal name in the Book of Llandaff), from Proto-Brythonic *guɨðel (“savage, woodsman”), from Proto-Celtic *wēdelos (“savage, woodsman”), from Proto-Indo-European *weydʰ- (“wood, wilderness”) (cf. Old English wāþ (“hunt”)).
Medieval Irish traditions, including the Lebor Gabála Érenn, trace the origin of the Goídels to an eponymous ancestor, Goídel Glas, but this is no longer held to be the ultimate etymology of the word.
Gael (plural Gaels)
- A member of an ethnic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic.
- 1911, G.K. Chesterton, The Ballad of the White Horse, Book II: The Gathering Of The Chiefs:
- For the great Gaels of Ireland
Are the men that God made mad,
For all their wars are merry,
And all their songs are sad.
From Old Irish Goídel, from Old Welsh Guoidel (“wild man, warrior”) (compare Welsh Gwyddel (“Irishman”)), from Proto-Brythonic *guɨðel, from Proto-Celtic *wēdus (“wild”), from Proto-Indo-European *weydʰ- (“wood, wilderness”) (compare Old English wāþ (“hunt”)). Replaced native terms féni (“class of landed Irish freemen”) and fénechas (“matters pertaining to the féni”), though these words survive as féine and féineachas, respectively, and derive ultimately from the same root.
- Gael, Irish person
- (~ de chuid na hAlban) (Scottish) Highlander
- Cumann Lúthchleas Gael m (“the Gaelic Athletic Association”)
- Gaeilge f, Gaelainn (“the Irish language”)
- Gaelach (“Irish; attached to the Irish language, to Irish culture”)
- Gaelachas m (“Irish characteristic(s), Irishness; attachment to Irish culture”)
- Gaelaigh (“Gaelicize”, verb)
- Gaelcholáiste m (“Irish-medium secondary school”)
- Gael-Mheiriceánach (“Irish-American”, adjective)
- Gael-Mheiriceánach m (“Irish-American”)
- Gaeltacht f (“Irishry; Irish(-speaking) people; Irish-speaking area; Gaelic-speaking area of Scotland”)
- Gaelú m (“Gaelicization”)
- Gall-Ghael m (“person of mixed Irish and foreign descent; Anglo-Irishman”)
|Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.|
- "Gael" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
- C. Marstrander, E. G. Quin et al., editors (1913–76), “Goídel”, in Dictionary of the Irish Language: Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials, Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, →ISBN
- Entries containing “Gael” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
- Entries containing “Gael” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.