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This module contains definitions and metadata for two-letter language codes. See Wiktionary:Languages for more information.

This module must not be used directly in other modules or templates. The data should be accessed through Module:languages.

Required values

Every entry in the table must contain the following properties:

canonicalName
The "canonical" name of the language. This is the name that is used in Wiktionary entries and category names.

Optional values

The properties entry_name and sort_key are used for text substitution; they replace or remove certain characters or sets of characters. They both work similarly, and are optional. They can both be tables, and sort_key can be the name of a module that takes an entry name and generates a sortkey (which is used to sort the entry on category pages).

if sort_key is the name of a module, the module must contain a sortkey-generating function that is named makeSortKey. This function must take the arguments text, lang, sc, where text is the page name (or other text in the language), lang is the language code (not the language object), and sc is the script code (not the script object). The returned value should always be a string, or there will be a module error in the Language:makeSortKey() function.

If either one is a table, it must contain two tables inside it: one named from and one named to. These two tables are organised pairwise: each element in from is a pattern to identify which characters in the term to replace, while the corresponding element in to defines what to replace them with.

If the replacement is not present or if it is false or nil, it defaults to an empty replacement, meaning that the matching characters are removed altogether. This means that the from list can be longer than the to list, and an empty replacement will be assumed for any elements in from that have no counterpart in to.

The tables can contain literal characters, or the patterns (a type of regular expressions) that are used by the standard Scribunto mw.ustring.gsub function. See the Scribunto reference manual for more information.

At the top of the module, there is a list of combining characters with names. These are provided for convenience and readability, as combining characters generally do not display properly inside the module code (although they do not affect the actual operation of the module).

entry_name
Defines replacements to create the entry name from the displayed form of a term. This can be used to remove certain diacritical marks according to the customs or standard practice of the language. For example, it is used to remove accent marks from Russian words (ру́сскийрусский), or macrons from Latin or Old English words (ōsos, as these are not used in the normal written form of these languages. This is used by makeEntryName in Module:languages.
sort_key
Defines replacements to create a category sort key from the page name. The purpose is to remove any characters that are ignored in sorting, and to replace similar characters with identical ones if the sorting rules for that language do not distinguish them. For example, in German, the characters "ä" and "a" are considered equivalent for sorting, and are both treated as "a". The page name is converted to lowercase before applying the replacements, so you should not add uppercase letters to the "from" lists. This is used by makeSortKey in Module:languages.

These are other optional values:

otherNames
A table of all the names that this language is known by, other than the canonical name. The list should include not only synonyms for the language, but also names that refer to language varieties that are subsumed under the same grouping. For example, while "Flemish" is not synonymous with "Dutch", Flemish is considered a part of Dutch, so the name is listed there.
type
The type of language (which affects how it is handled on Wiktionary). Possible values are:
  • regular - This value is the default, so it doesn't need to be specified. It indicates that the is attested according to WT:CFI and therefore permitted in the main namespace. There may also be reconstructed terms for the language, which are placed in the Reconstruction namespace and must be prefixed with * to indicate a reconstruction.
  • reconstructed - This language is not attested according to CFI, and therefore is allowed only in the Reconstruction namespace. All terms in this language are reconstructed, and must be prefixed with *.
  • appendix-constructed - This language is attested but does not meet the additional requirements set out for constructed languages (WT:CFI#Constructed languages). Its entries must therefore be in the Appendix namespace, but they are not reconstructed and therefore should not have * prefixed in links.
scripts
A list of script codes, see Wiktionary:Scripts. These represent all the scripts (writing systems) that this language employs, which are used on the main category of the language.
Most templates and modules will use a default script when no script is specified for them, but the script codes are interpreted in two different ways:
  • Templates and modules that use detect_script in Module:utilities will try to detect the script (based on the characters in the text), using the list of scripts as a list of possible scripts to try to detect. If the script cannot be detected, the first listed script is used by default.
  • All other templates and modules will generally use the first script listed as the default script.
family
The code for the family that the language belongs to. See Wiktionary:Families.
translit_module
The name of a module that is used to generate transliterations of terms, without the Module: prefix. This module must export a function named tr that is defined as follows:
tr(text, lang, sc)
The three parameters are the text to be transliterated, the language code, and the script code. The function can ignore the language and script codes, but they are provided for cases when a language has more than one script, or when a single function is used to transliterate multiple languages sharing the same script.
ancestors
A table listing the language codes of the direct ancestors of this language. For example, the ancestor of English is listed as enm (Middle English); ang (Old English, the ancestor of Middle English), gem-pro (Proto-Germanic, the ancestor of Old English), and ine-pro (Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor of Proto-Germanic) are not listed.
For most languages, only one ancestor code should be given, but multiple ancestors can be listed for pidgins, creoles and mixed languages.
The ancestor language table should not be included if the language's direct ancestor is the proto-language of the family to which the language belongs. In such a case, if the family code has been provided, Module:languages will automatically add the proto-language as the language's ancestor. For example, gem-pro (Proto-Germanic) has Indo-European (ine) listed as its language family, and Proto-Indo-European (ine-pro) is its direct ancestor. Because Proto-Indo-European is the proto-language of the Indo-European languages, Proto-Germanic does not need an ancestors table; Proto-Indo-European is automatically added as its ancestor.
wikimedia_codes
A table listing the Wikimedia language codes that this language maps to. This is used to translate Wiktionary codes to Wikimedia codes, which are usually the same but there are a few languages where it is different. The language codes must be valid Wikimedia codes (as determined by the wiki software), and if they are not defined in one of the language data modules, they must be defined in Module:wikimedia languages/data.
wikipedia_article
The name of the Wikipedia article for the language. Should be supplied if different from the name of the language's category on Wiktionary.

local u = mw.ustring.char

-- UTF-8 encoded strings for some commonly-used diacritics
local GRAVE     = u(0x0300)
local ACUTE     = u(0x0301)
local CIRC      = u(0x0302)
local TILDE     = u(0x0303)
local MACRON    = u(0x0304)
local BREVE     = u(0x0306)
local DOTABOVE  = u(0x0307)
local DIAER     = u(0x0308)
local CARON     = u(0x030C)
local DGRAVE    = u(0x030F)
local INVBREVE  = u(0x0311)
local DOTBELOW  = u(0x0323)
local RINGBELOW = u(0x0325)
local CEDILLA   = u(0x0327)
local OGONEK    = u(0x0328)

-- Puncuation to be used for standardChars field
local PUNCTUATION = ' \!\#\$\%\&\*\+\,\-\.\/\:\;\<\=\>\?\@\^\_\`\|\~\'\(\)'

local m = {}

m["aa"] = {
	canonicalName = "Afar",
	otherNames = {"Qafar"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cus",
}

m["ab"] = {
	canonicalName = "Abkhaz",
	otherNames = {"Abkhazian", "Abxazo"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Geor", "Latn"},
	family = "cau-abz",
	translit_module = "ab-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["ae"] = {
	canonicalName = "Avestan",
	otherNames = {"Zend", "Old Bactrian"},
	scripts = {"Avst", "Gujr"},
	family = "ira-eas",
	translit_module = "Avst-translit",
}

m["af"] = {
	canonicalName = "Afrikaans",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"nl"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äáâà]", "[ëéêè]", "[ïíîì]", "[öóôò]", "[üúûù]", "[ÿýŷỳ]", "^-", "'"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	, "i"	, "o"	, "u"  , "y" }} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Afrikaans",
}

m["ak"] = {
	canonicalName = "Akan",
	otherNames = {"Twi-Fante", "Twi", "Fante", "Fanti", "Asante", "Akuapem"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "alv-kwa",
}

m["am"] = {
	canonicalName = "Amharic",
	scripts = {"Ethi"},
	family = "sem-eth",
	translit_module = "Ethi-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Amharic",
}

m["an"] = {
	canonicalName = "Aragonese",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
	ancestors = {"roa-oan"},
}

m["ar"] = {
	canonicalName = "Arabic",
	otherNames = {"Modern Standard Arabic", "Standard Arabic", "Literary Arabic", "Classical Arabic"},
	scripts = {"Arab", "Brai"},
	family = "sem-arb",
	-- alif waṣl to alif, remove diacritics
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x0671), u(0x064B), u(0x064C), u(0x064D), u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652), u(0x0670), u(0x0640)},
		to   = {u(0x0627)}},
	translit_module = "ar-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Arabic",
	standardChars = "ء-غف-ْٰٱ" .. PUNCTUATION .. "۰-۹،؛؟",
}

m["as"] = {
	canonicalName = "Assamese",
	scripts = {"Beng"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"inc-mgd"},
	translit_module = "as-translit",
}

m["av"] = {
	canonicalName = "Avar",
	otherNames = {"Avaric"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "cau-nec",
	ancestors = {"oav"},
	translit_module = "av-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Avestan",
}

m["ay"] = {
	canonicalName = "Aymara",
	otherNames = {"Southern Aymara", "Central Aymara"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "sai-aym",
}

m["az"] = {
	canonicalName = "Azeri",
	otherNames = {"Azerbaijani", "Azari", "Azeri Turkic", "Azerbaijani Turkic", "North Azerbaijani", "South Azerbaijani", "Afshar", "Afshari", "Afshar Azerbaijani", "Afchar", "Qashqa'i", "Qashqai", "Kashkay", "Sonqor"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl", "fa-Arab"},
	family = "trk-ogz",
	wikipedia_article = "Azerbaijani language",
}

m["ba"] = {
	canonicalName = "Bashkir",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "trk-kip",
	translit_module = "ba-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["be"] = {
	canonicalName = "Belarusian",
	otherNames = {"Belorussian", "Belarusan", "Bielorussian", "Byelorussian", "Belarussian", "White Russian"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "zle",
	ancestors = {"orv"},
	translit_module = "be-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"Ё", "ё"},
		to   = {"Е" , "е"}},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е"}},
}

m["bg"] = {
	canonicalName = "Bulgarian",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "zls",
	translit_module = "bg-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", "Ѝ", "ѝ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е", "И", "и"}},
}

m["bh"] = {
	canonicalName = "Bihari",
	scripts = {"Deva"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"inc-mgd"},
	wikipedia_article = "Bihari languages",
}

m["bi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Bislama",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "crp",
	ancestors = {"en"},
	wikipedia_article = "Bislama",
}

m["bm"] = {
	canonicalName = "Bambara",
	otherNames = {"Bamanankan"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "dmn",
}

m["bn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Bengali",
	otherNames = {"Bangla"},
	scripts = {"Beng"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"inc-mgd"},
	translit_module = "bn-translit",
}

m["bo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tibetan",
	otherNames = {"Ü", "Dbus", "Lhasa", "Lhasa Tibetan", "Amdo Tibetan", "Amdo", "Panang", "Khams", "Khams Tibetan", "Khamba", "Tseku", "Dolpo", "Humla", "Limi", "Lhomi", "Shing Saapa", "Mugom", "Mugu", "Nubri", "Walungge", "Gola", "Thudam", "Lowa", "Loke", "Mustang", "Tichurong"},
	scripts = {"Tibt"},
	family = "tbq",
	ancestors = {"xct"},
	translit_module = "bo-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	wikipedia_article = "Standard Tibetan",		-- may need verification
}

m["br"] = {
	canonicalName = "Breton",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cel-bry",
	ancestors = {"xbm"},
}

m["ca"] = {
	canonicalName = "Catalan",
	otherNames = {"Valencian"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
	ancestors = {"roa-oca"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"à", "[èé]", "[íï]", "[òó]", "[úü]", "ç", "l·l"},
		to   = {"a", "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "u"   , "c", "ll" }} ,
}

m["ce"] = {
	canonicalName = "Chechen",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "cau-nkh",
	translit_module = "ce-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {MACRON},
		to   = {}},
}

m["ch"] = {
	canonicalName = "Chamorro",
	otherNames = {"Chamoru"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-sus",
}

m["co"] = {
	canonicalName = "Corsican",
	otherNames = {"Corsu"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
}

m["cr"] = {
	canonicalName = "Cree",
	scripts = {"Cans", "Latn"},
	family = "alg",
	translit_module = "cr-translit",
}

m["cs"] = {
	canonicalName = "Czech",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "zlw",
	ancestors = {"zlw-ocs"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "[úů]", "ý"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"   , "y"}} ,
}

m["cu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Old Church Slavonic",
	otherNames = {"Old Church Slavic"},
	scripts = {"Cyrs", "Glag"},
	family = "zls",
	translit_module = "Cyrs-Glag-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x0484)}, -- kamora
		to   = {}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"оу", "є"},
		to   = {"у" , "е"}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Old Church Slavonic",
}

m["cv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Chuvash",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "trk-ogr",
	translit_module = "cv-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["cy"] = {
	canonicalName = "Welsh",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cel-bry",
	ancestors = {"wlm"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[âáàä]", "[êéèë]", "[îíìï]", "[ôóòö]", "[ûúùü]", "[ŵẃẁẅ]", "[ŷýỳÿ]", "'"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "w"	 , "y"	 }} ,
}

m["da"] = {
	canonicalName = "Danish",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"gmq-oda"},
}

m["de"] = {
	canonicalName = "German",
	otherNames = {"High German", "New High German", "Deutsch"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Latf"},
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"gmh"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äàáâå]", "[ëèéê]", "[ïìíî]", "[öòóô]", "[üùúû]", "ß" },
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "ss"}} ,
}

m["dv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Dhivehi",
	otherNames = {"Divehi", "Mahal", "Mahl", "Maldivian"},
	scripts = {"Thaa"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"pmh"},	-- or Helu?
	translit_module = "dv-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	wikipedia_article = "Maldivian language",
}

m["dz"] = {
	canonicalName = "Dzongkha",
	scripts = {"Tibt"},
	family = "tbq",
	ancestors = {"xct"},
	translit_module = "bo-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	wikipedia_article = "Dzongkha",
}

m["ee"] = {
	canonicalName = "Ewe",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "alv-von",
}

m["el"] = {
	canonicalName = "Greek",
	otherNames = {"Modern Greek", "Neo-Hellenic"},
	scripts = {"Grek", "Brai"},
	family = "grk",
	ancestors = {"grc"},
	translit_module = "el-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	sort_key = {  -- Keep this synchronized with grc, cpg, pnt
		from = {"[ᾳάᾴὰᾲᾶᾷἀᾀἄᾄἂᾂἆᾆἁᾁἅᾅἃᾃἇᾇ]", "[έὲἐἔἒἑἕἓ]", "[ῃήῄὴῂῆῇἠᾐἤᾔἢᾒἦᾖἡᾑἥᾕἣᾓἧᾗ]", "[ίὶῖἰἴἲἶἱἵἳἷϊΐῒῗ]", "[όὸὀὄὂὁὅὃ]", "[ύὺῦὐὔὒὖὑὕὓὗϋΰῢῧ]", "[ῳώῴὼῲῶῷὠᾠὤᾤὢᾢὦᾦὡᾡὥᾥὣᾣὧᾧ]", "ῥ", "ς"},
		to   = {"α"						, "ε"		 , "η"						, "ι"				, "ο"		 , "υ"				, "ω"						, "ρ", "σ"}} ,
	standardChars = "ͺ;΄-ώϜϝ" .. PUNCTUATION .. "ἀ-῾"
}

m["en"] = {
	canonicalName = "English",
	otherNames = {"Modern English", "New English", "Hawaiian Creole English", "Hawai'ian Creole English", "Hawaiian Creole", "Hawai'ian Creole", "Polari", "Yinglish"}, -- all but the first three are names of subsumed dialects which once had codes
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai", "Shaw", "Dsrt"}, -- entries in Shaw or Dsrt might require prior discussion
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"enm"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äàáâåā]", "[ëèéêē]", "[ïìíîī]", "[öòóôō]", "[üùúûū]", "æ" , "œ" , "[çč]", "ñ", "'"},
		to   = {"a"       , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "ae", "oe", "c"   , "n"}},
	wikimedia_codes = {"en", "simple"},
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9" .. PUNCTUATION .. u(0x2800) .. "-" .. u(0x28FF)
}

m["eo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Esperanto",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "art",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áà]", "[éè]", "[íì]", "[óò]", "[úù]", "[ĉ]", "[ĝ]", "[ĥ]", "[ĵ]", "[ŝ]", "[ŭ]"},
		to   = {"a"	   , "e"  , "i"  , "o"  , "u", "cĉ", "gĉ", "hĉ", "jĉ", "sĉ", "uĉ"}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Esperanto",
}

m["es"] = {
	canonicalName = "Spanish",
	otherNames = {"Castilian", "Amazonian Spanish", "Amazonic Spanish", "Loreto-Ucayali Spanish"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai"},
	family = "roa",
	ancestors = {"osp"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "[úü]", "ç", "ñ"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"   , "c", "n"}},
	standardChars = "A-VXYZa-vxyz0-9ÁáÉéÍíÓóÚúÑñ¿¡" .. PUNCTUATION
}

m["et"] = {
	canonicalName = "Estonian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "fiu-fin",
}

m["eu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Basque",
	otherNames = {"Euskara"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "euq",
}

m["fa"] = {
	canonicalName = "Persian",
	otherNames = {"Farsi", "New Persian", "Modern Persian", "Western Persian", "Iranian Persian", "Eastern Persian", "Dari", "Aimaq", "Aimak", "Aymaq", "Eimak"},
	scripts = {"fa-Arab"},
	family = "ira-wes",
	ancestors = {"pal"}, -- "ira-mid"
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652)},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["ff"] = {
	canonicalName = "Fula",
	otherNames = {"Adamawa Fulfulde", "Bagirmi Fulfulde", "Borgu Fulfulde", "Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde", "Fulani", "Fulfulde", "Maasina Fulfulde", "Nigerian Fulfulde", "Pular", "Pulaar", "Western Niger Fulfulde"}, -- Maasina, etc are dialects, subsumed into this code
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "alv-sng",
}

m["fi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Finnish",
	otherNames = {"Suomi", "Botnian"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "fiu-fin",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ˣ"},  -- Used to indicate gemination of the next consonant
		to   = {}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áàâã]", "[éèêẽ]", "[íìîĩ]", "[óòôõ]", "[úùûũ]", "[ýỳŷüű]", "[øõő]", "æ" , "œ" , "[čç]", "š", "ž", "ß" , "[':]"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 ,  "y"	 , "ö"	, "ae", "oe", "c"   , "s", "z", "ss"}} ,
}

m["fj"] = {
	canonicalName = "Fijian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-occ",
}

m["fo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Faroese",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"non"},
}

m["fr"] = {
	canonicalName = "French",
	otherNames = {"Modern French"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai"},
	family = "roa-oil",
	ancestors = {"frm"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áàâä]", "[éèêë]", "[íìîï]", "[óòôö]", "[úùûü]", "[ýỳŷÿ]", "ç", "æ" , "œ" , "'"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "y"	 , "c", "ae", "oe"}},
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9ÀÂÇÉÈÊËÎÏÔŒÛÙÜàâçéèêëîïôœûùü«»" .. PUNCTUATION
}

m["fy"] = {
	canonicalName = "West Frisian",
	otherNames = {"Western Frisian", "Frisian"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmw-fri",
	ancestors = {"ofs"},
}

m["ga"] = {
	canonicalName = "Irish",
	otherNames = {"Irish Gaelic"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cel-gae",
	ancestors = {"mga"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "ú", "ý", "ḃ" , "ċ" , "ḋ" , "ḟ" , "ġ" , "ṁ" , "ṗ" , "ṡ" , "ṫ" },
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u", "y", "bh", "ch", "dh", "fh", "gh", "mh", "ph", "sh", "th"}} ,
}

m["gd"] = {
	canonicalName = "Scottish Gaelic",
	otherNames = {"Gàidhlig", "Highland Gaelic", "Scots Gaelic", "Scottish"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cel-gae",
	ancestors = {"mga"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áà]", "[éè]", "[íì]", "[óò]", "[úù]", "[ýỳ]"},
		to   = {"a"   , "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "u"   , "y"   }} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Scottish Gaelic",
}

m["gl"] = {
	canonicalName = "Galician",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
	ancestors = {"roa-opt"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "ú"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"}} ,
}

m["gn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Guaraní",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "tup-gua",
	wikipedia_article = "Guarani language",
}

m["gu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Gujarati",
	scripts = {"Gujr"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"inc-ogu"},
	translit_module = "gu-translit",
}

m["gv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Manx",
	otherNames = {"Manx Gaelic"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cel-gae",
	ancestors = {"mga"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ç", "-"},
		to   = {"c"}} ,
}

m["ha"] = {
	canonicalName = "Hausa",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	family = "cdc-wst",
    sort_key = {
		from = {"ɓ",   "ɗ",   "ƙ",  "'y", "ƴ",  "'" },
		to   = {"b~" , "d~"	, "k~", "y~", "y~", ""  }},
    entry_name = {
		from = {"R̃", "r̃", "À", "à", "È", "è", "Ì", "ì", "Ò", "ò", "Ù", "ù", "Â", "â", "Ê", "ê", "Î", "î", "Ô", "ô", "Û", "û", "Ā", "ā", "Ē", "ē", "Ī", "ī", "Ō", "ō", "Ū", "ū", "Á", "á", "É", "é", "Í", "í", "Ó", "ó", "Ú", "ú", "Ā̀", "ā̀", "Ḕ", "ḕ", "Ī̀", "ī̀", "Ṑ", "ṑ", "Ū̀", "ū̀", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"R", "r", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u"}},
}

m["he"] = {
	canonicalName = "Hebrew",
	otherNames = {"Ivrit"},
	scripts = {"Hebr", "Phnx", "Brai"},
	family = "sem-can",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[" .. u(0x0591) .. "-" .. u(0x05BD) .. u(0x05BF) .. "-" .. u(0x05C5) .. u(0x05C7) .. "]"},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["hi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Hindi",
	otherNames = {"Hindavi", "Khariboli", "Khari Boli", "Manak Hindi"},
	scripts = {"Deva", "Kthi"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"inc-ohi"},
	translit_module = "hi-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Hindi",
}

m["ho"] = {
	canonicalName = "Hiri Motu",
	otherNames = {"Pidgin Motu", "Police Motu"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "crp",
	ancestors = {"meu"},
	wikipedia_article = "Hiri Motu",
}

m["ht"] = {
	canonicalName = "Haitian Creole",
	otherNames = {"Creole", "Haitian", "Kreyòl"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "crp",
	wikipedia_article = "Haitian Creole",
}

m["hu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Hungarian",
	otherNames = {"Magyar"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hung"},
	family = "urj-ugr",
	ancestors = {"ohu"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "ú", "ő", "ű"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u", "ö", "ü"}} ,
}

m["hy"] = {
	canonicalName = "Armenian",
	otherNames = {"Modern Armenian", "Eastern Armenian", "Western Armenian"},
	scripts = {"Armn", "Brai"},
	family = "hyx",
	ancestors = {"axm"},
	translit_module = "Armn-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ու", "և", "եւ"},
		to   = {"ւ", "եվ", "եվ"}},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"՞", "՜", "՛", "՟", "և", "<sup>յ</sup>", "<sup>ի</sup>"},
		to   = {"", "", "", "", "եւ", "յ", "ի"}} ,
}

m["hz"] = {
	canonicalName = "Herero",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["ia"] = {
	canonicalName = "Interlingua",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "art",
	wikipedia_article = "Interlingua",
}

m["id"] = {
	canonicalName = "Indonesian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-mly",
	ancestors = {"ms"},
}

m["ie"] = {
	canonicalName = "Interlingue",
	otherNames = {"Occidental"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "art",
	wikipedia_article = "Occidental language",
}

m["ig"] = {
	canonicalName = "Igbo",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "nic-bco",
}

m["ii"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sichuan Yi",
	otherNames = {"Nuosu", "Nosu", "Northern Yi", "Liangshan Yi"},
	scripts = {"Yiii"},
	family = "tbq-lol",
	wikipedia_article = "Nuosu language",
}

m["ik"] = {
	canonicalName = "Inupiak",
	otherNames = {"Inupiaq", "Iñupiaq", "Inupiatun"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "esx-inu",
	wikipedia_article = "Inupiaq",
}

m["io"] = {
	canonicalName = "Ido",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "art",
}

m["is"] = {
	canonicalName = "Icelandic",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"non"},
}

m["it"] = {
	canonicalName = "Italian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[àáâäå]", "[èéêë]", "[ìíîï]", "[òóôö]", "[ùúûü]"},
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 }} ,
}

m["iu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Inuktitut",
	otherNames = {"Eastern Canadian Inuktitut", "Eastern Canadian Inuit", "Western Canadian Inuktitut", "Western Canadian Inuit", "Western Canadian Inuktun", "Inuinnaq", "Inuinnaqtun", "Inuvialuk", "Inuvialuktun", "Nunavimmiutit", "Nunatsiavummiut", "Aivilimmiut", "Natsilingmiut", "Kivallirmiut", "Siglit", "Siglitun"},
	scripts = {"Cans", "Latn"},
	family = "esx-inu",
	translit_module = "iu-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	wikipedia_article = "Inuktitut",
}

m["ja"] = {
	canonicalName = "Japanese",
	otherNames = {"Modern Japanese", "Nipponese", "Nihongo"},
	scripts = {"Jpan", "Latn", "Hira", "Brai"},
	family = "jpx",
	ancestors = {"ojp"},
	--[[
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[ぁァア]", "[ぃィイ]", "[ぅゔゥウヴ]", "[ぇェエ]", "[ぉォオ]", "[がゕカガヵ]", "[ぎキギ]", "[ぐクグㇰ]", "[げゖケゲヶ]", "[ごコゴ]", "[ざサザ]", "[じシジㇱ]", "[ずスズㇲ]", "[ぜセゼ]", "[ぞソゾ]", "[だタダ]", "[ぢチヂ]", "[っづッツヅ]", "[でテデ]", "[どトドㇳ]", "ナ", "ニ", "[ヌㇴ]", "ネ", "ノ", "[ばぱハバパㇵ]", "[びぴヒビピㇶ]", "[ぶぷフブプㇷ]", "[べぺヘベペㇸ]", "[ぼぽホボポㇹ]", "マ", "ミ", "[ムㇺ]", "メ", "モ", "[ゃャヤ]", "[ゅュユ]", "[ょョヨ]", "[ラㇻ]", "[リㇼ]", "[ルㇽ]", "[レㇾ]", "[ロㇿ]", "[ゎヮワヷ]", "[ヰヸ]", "[ヱヹ]", "[ヲヺ]", "ン", "[゙゚゛゜ゝゞ・ヽヾ]", "𛀀"},
		to   = {"あ", "い", "う", "え", "お", "か", "き", "く", "け", "こ", "さ", "し", "す", "せ", "そ", "た", "ち", "つ", "て", "と", "な", "に", "ぬ", "ね", "の", "は", "ひ", "ふ", "へ", "ほ", "ま", "み", "む", "め", "も", "や", "ゆ", "よ", "ら", "り", "る", "れ", "ろ", "わ", "ゐ", "ゑ", "を", "ん", "", "え"}},
	]]
}

m["jv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Javanese",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Java"},
	family = "poz-sus",
	translit_module = "jv-translit",
	ancestors = {"kaw"},
	link_tr = true,
}

m["ka"] = {
	canonicalName = "Georgian",
	otherNames = {"Kartvelian", "Judeo-Georgian", "Kivruli", "Gruzinic"},
	scripts = {"Geor", "Geok", "Hebr"}, -- Hebr is used to write Judeo-Georgian
	family = "ccs-gzn",
	ancestors = {"oge"},
	translit_module = "Geor-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"̂"},
		to   = {""}},
}

m["kg"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kongo",
	otherNames = {"Kikongo", "Koongo", "Laari", "San Salvador Kongo", "Yombe"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["ki"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kikuyu",
	otherNames = {"Gikuyu", "Gĩkũyũ"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["kj"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kwanyama",
	otherNames = {"Kuanyama", "Oshikwanyama"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
	wikipedia_article = "Kwanyama dialect",
}

m["kk"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kazakh",
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Latn", "Arab", "kk-Arab"},
	family = "trk-kip",
	translit_module = "kk-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["kl"] = {
	canonicalName = "Greenlandic",
	otherNames = {"Kalaallisut"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "esx-inu",
}

m["km"] = {
	canonicalName = "Khmer",
	otherNames = {"Cambodian"},
	scripts = {"Khmr"},
	family = "mkh",
	ancestors = {"mkh-mkm"},
	translit_module = "km-translit",
}

m["kn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kannada",
	scripts = {"Knda"},
	family = "dra",
	ancestors = {"dra-mkn"},
	translit_module = "kn-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Kannada",
}

m["ko"] = {
	canonicalName = "Korean",
	otherNames = {"Modern Korean"},
	scripts = {"Kore", "Brai"},
	family = "qfa-kor",
	ancestors = {"okm"},
	translit_module = "ko-translit",
}

m["kr"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kanuri",
	otherNames = {"Kanembu", "Bilma Kanuri", "Central Kanuri", "Manga Kanuri", "Tumari Kanuri"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	family = "ssa-sah",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ny", "ǝ", "sh"},
		to   = {"n~", "e~", "s~"}} , -- the sortkey and entry_name are only for standard Kanuri; when dialectal entries get added, someone will have to work out how the dialects should be represented orthographically
	entry_name = {
		from = {"À", "à", "È", "è", "Ǝ̀", "ǝ̀", "Ì", "ì", "Ò", "ò", "Ù", "ù", "Â", "â", "Ê", "ê", "Ǝ̂", "ǝ̂", "Î", "î", "Ô", "ô", "Û", "û", "Ă", "ă", "Ĕ", "ĕ", "Ǝ̆", "ǝ̆", "Ĭ", "ĭ", "Ŏ", "ŏ", "Ŭ", "ŭ", "Á", "á", "É", "é", "Ǝ́", "ǝ́", "Í", "í", "Ó", "ó", "Ú", "ú", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u"}},
}

m["ks"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kashmiri",
	scripts = {"ks-Arab", "Deva"},
	family = "inc-dar",
}

m["ku"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kurdish",
	scripts = {"Latn", "ku-Arab", "Armn", "Cyrl"},
	family = "ira-wes",
	wikipedia_article = "Kurdish languages",
}

-- "kv" IS TREATED AS "koi", "kpv", SEE WT:LT

m["kw"] = {
	canonicalName = "Cornish",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "cel-bry",
	ancestors = {"cnx"},
}

m["ky"] = {
	canonicalName = "Kyrgyz",
	otherNames = {"Kirghiz", "Kirgiz"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Latn", "Arab"},
	family = "trk-kip",
	translit_module = "ky-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["la"] = {
	canonicalName = "Latin",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "itc",
	ancestors = {"itc-ola"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ĀĂ]", "[āă]", "[ĒĔ]", "[ēĕë]", "[ĪĬÏ]", "[īĭï]", "[ŌŎ]", "[ōŏ]", "[ŪŬÜ]", "[ūŭü]", "Ȳ", "ȳ", MACRON, BREVE, DIAER},
		to   = {"A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "Y", "y"}},
	wikipedia_article = "Latin",
	standardChars = "A-Za-zÆ挜Ā-ăĒ-ĕĪ-ĭŌ-ŏŪ-ŭȲȳ" .. MACRON .. BREVE .. PUNCTUATION
}

m["lb"] = {
	canonicalName = "Luxembourgish",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"gmh"},
	wikipedia_article = "Luxembourgish",
}

m["lg"] = {
	canonicalName = "Luganda",
	otherNames = {"Ganda", "Oluganda"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"á", "Á", "é", "É", "í", "Í", "ó", "Ó", "ú", "Ú", "ń", "Ń", "ḿ", "Ḿ", "â", "Â", "ê", "Ê", "î", "Î", "ô", "Ô", "û", "Û" },
		to   = {"a", "A", "e", "E", "i", "I", "o", "O", "u", "U", "n", "N", "m", "M", "a", "A", "e", "E", "i", "I", "o", "O", "u", "U",}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ŋ"},
		to   = {"n"}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Luganda",
}

m["li"] = {
	canonicalName = "Limburgish",
	otherNames = {"Limburgan", "Limburgian", "Limburgic"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"dum"},
}

m["ln"] = {
	canonicalName = "Lingala",
	otherNames = {"Ngala"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
	wikipedia_article = "Lingala",
}

m["lo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Lao",
	otherNames = {"Laotian"},
	scripts = {"Laoo"},
	family = "tai-swe",
	translit_module = "lo-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ຼ", "ຽ", "ໜ", "ໝ", "([ເແໂໃໄ])([ກ-ຮ])"},
		to   = {"ລ", "ຍ", "ຫນ", "ຫມ", "%2%1"}},
}

m["lt"] = {
	canonicalName = "Lithuanian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bat",
	ancestors = {"olt"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[áãà]", "[ÁÃÀ]", "[éẽè]", "[ÉẼÈ]", "[íĩì]", "[ÍĨÌ]", "[ýỹ]", "[ÝỸ]", "ñ", "[óõò]", "[ÓÕÒ]", "[úũù]", "[ÚŨÙ]", ACUTE, GRAVE, TILDE},
		to   = {"a",       "A",     "e",     "E",     "i",     "I",     "y",   "Y",   "n",   "o",    "O",     "u",      "U"}} ,
}

m["lu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Luba-Katanga",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["lv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Latvian",
	otherNames = {"Lettish", "Lett"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bat",
	entry_name = {
		-- This attempts to convert vowels with tone marks to vowels either with
		-- or without macrons. Specifically, there should be no macrons if the
		-- vowel is part of a diphthong (including resonant diphthongs such
		-- pìrksts -> pirksts not #pīrksts). What we do is first convert the
		-- vowel + tone mark to a vowel + tilde in a decomposed fashion,
		-- then remove the tilde in diphthongs, then convert the remaining
		-- vowel + tilde sequences to macroned vowels, then delete any other
		-- tilde. We leave already-macroned vowels alone: Both e.g. ar and ār
		-- occur before consonants. FIXME: This still might not be sufficient.
		from = {"Ȩ", "ȩ", "[ÂÃÀ]", "[âãà]", "[ÊẼÈ]", "[êẽè]", "[ÎĨÌ]", "[îĩì]", "[ÔÕÒ]", "[ôõò]", "[ÛŨÙ]", "[ûũù]", "[ÑǸ]", "[ñǹ]", "[" .. CIRC .. TILDE ..GRAVE .."]", "([aAeEiIoOuU])" .. TILDE .."?([lrnmuiLRNMUI])" .. TILDE .. "?([^aAeEiIoOuUāĀēĒīĪūŪ])", "([aAeEiIoOuU])" .. TILDE .."?([lrnmuiLRNMUI])" .. TILDE .."?$", "([iI])" .. TILDE .. "?([eE])" .. TILDE .. "?", "A" .. TILDE, "a" .. TILDE, "E" .. TILDE, "e" .. TILDE, "I" .. TILDE, "i" .. TILDE, "U" .. TILDE, "u" .. TILDE, TILDE},
		to   = {"E", "e", "A" .. TILDE, "a" .. TILDE, "E" .. TILDE, "e" .. TILDE, "I" .. TILDE, "i" .. TILDE, "O", "o", "U" .. TILDE, "u" .. TILDE, "N", "n", TILDE, "%1%2%3", "%1%2", "%1%2", "Ā", "ā", "Ē", "ē", "Ī", "ī", "Ū", "ū", ""}},
}

m["mg"] = {
	canonicalName = "Malagasy",
	otherNames = {"Betsimisaraka Malagasy", "Betsimisaraka", "Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy", "Northern Betsimisaraka", "Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy", "Southern Betsimisaraka", "Bara Malagasy", "Bara", "Masikoro Malagasy", "Masikoro", "Antankarana", "Antankarana Malagasy", "Plateau Malagasy", "Sakalava", "Tandroy Malagasy", "Tandroy", "Tanosy", "Tanosy Malagasy", "Tesaka", "Tsimihety", "Tsimihety Malagasy", "Bushi", "Shibushi", "Kibushi", "Sakalava"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-bre",
}

m["mh"] = {
	canonicalName = "Marshallese",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-mic",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ā" , "ļ" , "m̧" , "ņ" , "n̄"  , "o̧" , "ō"  , "ū" },
		to   = {"a~", "l~", "m~", "n~", "n~~", "o~", "o~~", "u~"}} ,
}

m["mi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Maori",
	otherNames = {"Māori"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-pol",
	wikipedia_article = "Māori language",
}

m["mk"] = {
	canonicalName = "Macedonian",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "zls",
	translit_module = "mk-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {ACUTE},
		to   = {}},
}

m["ml"] = {
	canonicalName = "Malayalam",
	scripts = {"Mlym"},
	family = "dra",
	translit_module = "ml-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	wikipedia_article = "Malayalam",
}

m["mn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Mongolian",
	otherNames = {"Khalkha Mongolian"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Mong", "Soyo", "Zanb"}, -- entries in Soyo or Zanb might require prior discussion
	family = "xgn",
	ancestors = {"cmg"},
	translit_module = "mn-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

-- "mo" IS TREATED AS "ro", SEE WT:LT

m["mr"] = {
	canonicalName = "Marathi",
	scripts = {"Deva", "Modi"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"omr"},
	translit_module = "hi-translit",
}

m["ms"] = {
	canonicalName = "Malay",
	otherNames = {"Malaysian", "Standard Malay", "Orang Seletar", "Orang Kanaq", "Jakun", "Temuan"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "ms-Arab"},
	family = "poz-mly",
}

m["mt"] = {
	canonicalName = "Maltese",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "sem-arb",
	ancestors = {"sqr"},
}

m["my"] = {
	canonicalName = "Burmese",
	otherNames = {"Myanmar"},
	scripts = {"Mymr"},
	family = "tbq-brm",
	ancestors = {"obr"},
	translit_module = "my-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["na"] = {
	canonicalName = "Nauruan",
	otherNames = {"Nauru"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-mic",
}

m["nb"] = {
	canonicalName = "Norwegian Bokmål",
	otherNames = {"Bokmål"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"gmq-mno"},
	wikimedia_codes = {"no"},
	wikipedia_article = "Bokmål",
}

m["nd"] = {
	canonicalName = "Northern Ndebele",
	otherNames = {"North Ndebele"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt-ngu",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["ne"] = {
	canonicalName = "Nepali",
	otherNames = {"Nepalese"},
	scripts = {"Deva"},
	family = "inc",
	translit_module = "ne-translit",
}

m["ng"] = {
	canonicalName = "Ndonga",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
	wikipedia_article = "Ndonga dialect",
}

m["nl"] = {
	canonicalName = "Dutch",
	otherNames = {"Netherlandic", "Flemish"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"dum"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äáâå]", "[ëéê]", "[ïíî]", "[öóô]", "[üúû]", "ç", "ñ", "^-"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	, "i"	, "o"	, "u"	, "c", "n"}} ,
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9" .. PUNCTUATION .. u(0x2800) .. "-" .. u(0x28FF),
}

m["nn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Norwegian Nynorsk",
	otherNames = {"New Norwegian", "Nynorsk"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"gmq-mno"},
	wikipedia_article = "Nynorsk",
}

m["no"] = {
	canonicalName = "Norwegian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"gmq-mno"},
}

m["nr"] = {
	canonicalName = "Southern Ndebele",
	otherNames = {"South Ndebele"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt-ngu",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["nv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Navajo",
	otherNames = {"Navaho", "Diné bizaad"},
	scripts = {"nv-Latn"},
	family = "apa",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áą]", "[éę]", "[íį]", "[óǫ]", "ń", "^n([djlt])", "ł" , "[ʼ’']", ACUTE},
		to   = {"a"   , "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "n", "ni%1"	  , "l"}}, -- the copyright sign is used to guarantee that ł will always be sorted after all other words with l
}

m["ny"] = {
	canonicalName = "Chichewa",
	otherNames = {"Chicheŵa", "Chinyanja", "Nyanja", "Chewa", "Cicewa", "Cewa", "Cinyanja"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ŵ", "Ŵ", "á", "Á", "é", "É", "í", "Í", "ó", "Ó", "ú", "Ú", "ń", "Ń", "ḿ", "Ḿ" },
		to   = {"w", "W", "a", "A", "e", "E", "i", "I", "o", "O", "u", "U", "n", "N", "m", "M"}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ng'"},
		to   = {"ng"}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Chewa language",
}

m["oc"] = {
	canonicalName = "Occitan",
	otherNames = {"Provençal", "Auvergnat", "Auvernhat", "Gascon", "Languedocien", "Lengadocian", "Shuadit", "Chouhadite", "Chouhadit", "Chouadite", "Chouadit", "Shuhadit", "Judeo-Provençal", "Judeo-Provencal", "Judeo-Comtadin"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hebr"},
	family = "roa",
	ancestors = {"pro"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[àá]", "[èé]", "[íï]", "[òó]", "[úü]", "ç", "([lns])·h"},
		to   = {"a"   , "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "u"   , "c", "%1h"	  }} ,
}

m["oj"] = {
	canonicalName = "Ojibwe",
	otherNames = {"Chippewa", "Ojibway", "Ojibwemowin", "Southwestern Ojibwa"},
	scripts = {"Cans", "Latn"},
	family = "alg",
}

m["om"] = {
	canonicalName = "Oromo",
	otherNames = {"Orma", "Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo", "West Central Oromo"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Ethi"},
	family = "cus",
}

m["or"] = {
	canonicalName = "Oriya",
	otherNames = {"Odia", "Oorya"},
	scripts = {"Orya"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"inc-mgd"},
	translit_module = "or-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Odia language",
}

m["os"] = {
	canonicalName = "Ossetian",
	otherNames = {"Ossete", "Ossetic", "Digor", "Iron"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Geor", "Latn"},
	family = "ira",
	ancestors = {"oos"},
	translit_module = "os-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["pa"] = {
	canonicalName = "Punjabi",
	otherNames = {"Panjabi"},
	scripts = {"Guru", "Arab", "Deva"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"psu"},
	translit_module = "translit-redirect",
}

m["pi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Pali",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Deva", "Beng", "Sinh", "Mymr", "Thai", "Lana", "Khmr"}, -- holds Laoo, not enough glyphes to render
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"bh"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ā", "ī", "ū", "ḍ", "ḷ", "[ṁṃ]", "[ṇñṅ]", "ṭ"},
		to   = {"a", "i", "u", "d", "l", "m"   , "n"	, "t"}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Pali",
}

m["pl"] = {
	canonicalName = "Polish",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "zlw",
	ancestors = {"zlw-opl"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[Ąą]", "[Ćć]", "[Ęę]", "[Łł]", "[Ńń]", "[Óó]", "[Śś]", "[Żż]", "[Źź]"},
		to   = {
			"a" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"c" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"e" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"l" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"n" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"o" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"s" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"z" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"z" .. u(0x10FFFE)}} ,
}

m["ps"] = {
	canonicalName = "Pashto",
	otherNames = {"Pashtun", "Pushto", "Pashtu", "Central Pashto", "Northern Pashto", "Southern Pashto", "Pukhto", "Pakhto", "Pakkhto", "Afghani"},
	scripts = {"ps-Arab"},
	family = "ira-eas",
	wikipedia_article = "Pashto",
}

m["pt"] = {
	canonicalName = "Portuguese",
	otherNames = {"Modern Portuguese"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai"},
	family = "roa",
	ancestors = {"roa-opt"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[àãáâä]", "[èẽéêë]", "[ìĩíï]", "[òóôõö]", "[üúùũ]", "ç", "ñ"},
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	  , "i"	 , "o"	  , "u"	 , "c", "n"}} ,
}

m["qu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Quechua",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "qwe",
	wikipedia_article = "Quechuan languages",
}

m["rm"] = {
	canonicalName = "Romansch",
	otherNames = {"Romansh", "Rumantsch", "Romanche"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
	wikipedia_article = "Romansh language",
}

m["ro"] = {
	canonicalName = "Romanian",
	otherNames = {"Daco-Romanian", "Roumanian", "Rumanian"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl"},
	family = "roa",
	sort_key = {
        from = {"ă" , "â"  , "î" , "ș" , "ț" },
        to   = {"a~", "a~~", "i~", "s~", "t~"}},
}

m["ru"] = {
	canonicalName = "Russian",
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Brai"},
	family = "zle",
	translit_module = "ru-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ё"},
		to   = {"е" .. mw.ustring.char(0x10FFFF)}},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", "Ѝ", "ѝ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е", "И", "и"}},
	standardChars = "ЁІА-яёі0-9—" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["rw"] = {
	canonicalName = "Rwanda-Rundi",
	otherNames = {"Rwanda", "Kinyarwanda", "Rundi", "Kirundi", "Ha", "Giha", "Hangaza", "Vinza", "Shubi", "Subi"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
	wikipedia_article = "Rwanda-Rundi",
}

m["sa"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sanskrit",
	scripts = {"Deva", "Beng", "Brah", "Gran", "Gujr", "Guru", "Khar", "Knda", "Mlym", "Mymr", "Orya", "Shrd", "Sinh", "Taml", "Telu", "Thai", "Tibt"},
	family = "inc",
	translit_module = "sa-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Sanskrit",
}

m["sc"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sardinian",
	otherNames = {"Campidanese", "Campidanese Sardinian", "Logudorese", "Logudorese Sardinian", "Nuorese", "Nuorese Sardinian"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa",
}

m["sd"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sindhi",
	scripts = {"sd-Arab", "Deva"},
	family = "inc",
}

m["se"] = {
	canonicalName = "Northern Sami",
	otherNames = {"North Sami", "Northern Saami", "North Saami"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "smi",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"([đflmnŋrsšŧv])'%1"},
		to   = {"%1%1"} },
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á" , "č" , "đ" , "ŋ" , "š" , "ŧ" , "ž" },
		to   = {"a²", "c²", "d²", "n²", "s²", "t²", "z²"} },
	wikipedia_article = "Northern Sami",
	standardChars = "A-PR-VZa-pr-vz0-9ÁáČčĐđŊŋŠšŦŧŽž" .. PUNCTUATION
}

m["sg"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sango",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "crp",
}

m["sh"] = {
	canonicalName = "Serbo-Croatian",
	otherNames = {"BCS", "Croato-Serbian", "Serbocroatian", "Bosnian", "Croatian", "Montenegrin", "Serbian"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl"},
	family = "zls",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ȀÀȂÁĀÃ]", "[ȁàȃáāã]", "[ȄÈȆÉĒẼ]", "[ȅèȇéēẽ]", "[ȈÌȊÍĪĨ]", "[ȉìȋíīĩ]", "[ȌÒȎÓŌÕ]", "[ȍòȏóōõ]", "[ȐȒŔ]", "[ȑȓŕ]", "[ȔÙȖÚŪŨ]", "[ȕùȗúūũ]", "Ѐ", "ѐ", "[ӢЍ]", "[ӣѝ]", "[Ӯ]", "[ӯ]", GRAVE, ACUTE, DGRAVE, INVBREVE, MACRON, TILDE},
		to   = {"A"	  , "a"	  , "E"	  , "e"	  , "I"	  , "i"	  , "O"	  , "o"	  , "R"	, "r"	, "U"	  , "u"	  , "Е", "е", "И"   , "и", "У", "у"   }},
	wikimedia_codes = {"sh", "bs", "hr", "sr"},
	wikipedia_article = "Serbo-Croatian",
}

m["si"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sinhalese",
	otherNames = {"Singhalese", "Sinhala"},
	scripts = {"Sinh"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"elu-prk"},
	translit_module = "si-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["sk"] = {
	canonicalName = "Slovak",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "zlw",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áä]", "é", "í", "[óô]", "ú", "ý", "ŕ", "ĺ", "[" .. DIAER .. ACUTE .. CIRC .. "]"},
		to   = {"a"   , "e", "i", "o"   , "u", "y", "r", "l", ""}} ,
}

m["sl"] = {
	canonicalName = "Slovene",
	otherNames = {"Slovenian"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "zls",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ÁÀÂȂȀ]", "[áàâȃȁ]", "[ÉÈÊȆȄỆẸ]", "[éèêȇȅệẹə]", "[ÍÌÎȊȈ]", "[íìîȋȉ]", "[ÓÒÔȎȌỘỌ]", "[óòôȏȍộọ]", "[ŔȒȐ]", "[ŕȓȑ]", "[ÚÙÛȖȔ]", "[úùûȗȕ]", "ł", GRAVE, ACUTE, DGRAVE, INVBREVE, CIRC, DOTBELOW},
		to   = {"A"	  , "a"	  , "E"		, "e"		 , "I"	  , "i"	  , "O"		, "o"		, "R"	, "r"	, "U"	  , "u"	  , "l"}} ,
}

m["sm"] = {
	canonicalName = "Samoan",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-pol",
}

m["sn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Shona",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["so"] = {
	canonicalName = "Somali",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab", "Osma"},
	family = "cus",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ÁÀÂ]", "[áàâ]", "[ÉÈÊ]", "[éèê]", "[ÍÌÎ]", "[íìî]", "[ÓÒÔ]", "[óòô]", "[ÚÙÛ]", "[úùû]", "[ÝỲ]", "[ýỳ]"},
		to   = {"A"	  , "a"	  , "E"	, "e" , "I"	  , "i"	  , "O"	, "o"	, "U"  , "u", "Y", "y"}} ,
}

m["sq"] = {
	canonicalName = "Albanian",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Elba"},
	family = "sqj",
	sort_key = {
		from = { '[âãä]', '[ÂÃÄ]', '[êẽë]', '[ÊẼË]', 'ĩ', 'Ĩ', 'õ', 'Õ', 'ũ', 'Ũ', 'ỹ', 'Ỹ', 'ç', 'Ç' },
		to   = {     'a',     'A',     'e',     'E', 'i', 'I', 'o', 'O', 'u', 'U', 'y', 'Y', 'c', 'C' } } ,
}

m["ss"] = {
	canonicalName = "Swazi",
	otherNames = {"Swati"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt-ngu",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["st"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sotho",
	otherNames = {"Sesotho", "Southern Sesotho", "Southern Sotho"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["su"] = {
	canonicalName = "Sundanese",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Sund"},
	family = "poz-msa",
	translit_module = "su-translit",
}

m["sv"] = {
	canonicalName = "Swedish",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "gmq",
	ancestors = {"gmq-osw"},
}

m["sw"] = {
	canonicalName = "Swahili",
	otherNames = {"Settler Swahili", "KiSetla", "KiSettla", "Setla", "Settla", "Kitchen Swahili", "Kihindi", "Indian Swahili", "KiShamba", "Kishamba", "Field Swahili", "Kibabu", "Asian Swahili", "Kimanga", "Arab Swahili", "Kitvita", "Army Swahili"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	family = "bnt",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ng'", "^-"},
		to   = {"ngz"}} ,
}

m["ta"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tamil",
	scripts = {"Taml"},
	family = "dra",
	ancestors = {"oty"},
	translit_module = "ta-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["te"] = {
	canonicalName = "Telugu",
	scripts = {"Telu"},
	family = "dra",
	translit_module = "te-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["tg"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tajik",
	otherNames = {"Tadjik", "Tadzhik", "Tajiki", "Tajik Persian"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "fa-Arab", "Latn"},
	family = "ira-wes",
	ancestors = {"fa"},
	translit_module = "tg-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"Ё", "ё"},
		to   = {"Е" , "е"}} ,
	entry_name = {
		from = {ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["th"] = {
	canonicalName = "Thai",
	otherNames = {"Siamese", "Central Thai"},
	scripts = {"Thai", "Brai"},
	family = "tai-swe",
	translit_module = "th-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"%p", "([เแโใไ])([ก-ฮ])"},
		to   = {"", "%2%1"}},
}

m["ti"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tigrinya",
	scripts = {"Ethi"},
	family = "sem-eth",
	translit_module = "Ethi-translit",
}

m["tk"] = {
	canonicalName = "Turkmen",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl"},
	family = "trk-ogz",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ā", "ē", "ī", "ō", "ū", "ȳ", "ȫ", "ǖ", MACRON},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u", "y", "ö", "ü", ""}},
}

m["tl"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tagalog",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Tglg"},
	family = "phi",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[áàâ]", "[éèê]", "[íìî]", "[óòô]", "[úùû]", ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC},
		to   = {"a"    , "e"    , "i"    , "o"    , "u"    }},
}

m["tn"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tswana",
	otherNames = {"Setswana"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["to"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tongan",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-pol",
}

m["tr"] = {
	canonicalName = "Turkish",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "trk-ogz",
	ancestors = {"ota"},
}

m["ts"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tsonga",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["tt"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tatar",
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Latn", "Arab", "tt-Arab"},
	family = "trk-kip",
	translit_module = "tt-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

-- "tw" IS TREATED AS "ak", SEE WT:LT

m["ty"] = {
	canonicalName = "Tahitian",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "poz-pol",
}

m["ug"] = {
	canonicalName = "Uyghur",
	otherNames = {"Uigur", "Uighur", "Uygur"},
	scripts = {"ug-Arab", "Latn", "Cyrl"},
	family = "trk",
	ancestors = {"chg"},
	translit_module = "ug-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["uk"] = {
	canonicalName = "Ukrainian",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	family = "zle",
	ancestors = {"orv"},
	translit_module = "uk-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", "Ѝ", "ѝ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е", "И", "и"}},
	standardChars = "ЄІЇА-ЩЫЬЮ-щыьюяєії" .. PUNCTUATION
} 
m["ur"] = {
	canonicalName = "Urdu",
	scripts = {"ur-Arab"},
	family = "inc",
	ancestors = {"psu"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x064B), u(0x064C), u(0x064D), u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652)},
		to   = {}} ,
	wikipedia_article = "Urdu",
}

m["uz"] = {
	canonicalName = "Uzbek",
	otherNames = {"Northern Uzbek", "Southern Uzbek"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl", "fa-Arab"},
	family = "trk",
	ancestors = {"chg"},
}

m["ve"] = {
	canonicalName = "Venda",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt",
}

m["vi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Vietnamese",
	otherNames = {"Annamese", "Annamite"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hani"},
	family = "mkh-vie",
	ancestors = {"mkh-mvi"},
	sort_key = "vi-sortkey",
}

m["vo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Volapük",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "art",
	wikipedia_article = "Volapük",
}

m["wa"] = {
	canonicalName = "Walloon",
	otherNames = {"Liégeois", "Namurois", "Wallo-Picard", "Wallo-Lorrain"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "roa-oil",
	ancestors = {"fro"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áàâäå]", "[éèêë]", "[íìîï]", "[óòôö]", "[úùûü]", "[ýỳŷÿ]", "ç", "'"},
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "y"	 , "c"}} ,
}

m["wo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Wolof",
	otherNames = {"Gambian Wolof"}, -- the subsumed dialect 'wof'
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	family = "alv-sng",
}

m["xh"] = {
	canonicalName = "Xhosa",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt-ngu",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["yi"] = {
	canonicalName = "Yiddish",
	scripts = {"Hebr"},
	family = "gmw",
	ancestors = {"gmh"},
	translit_module = "yi-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Yiddish",
}

m["yo"] = {
	canonicalName = "Yoruba",
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "alv-von",
}

m["za"] = {
	canonicalName = "Zhuang",
	otherNames = {"Standard Zhuang"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hani"},
	family = "tai",
	wikipedia_article = "Zhuang languages",
}

m["zh"] = {
	canonicalName = "Chinese",
	scripts = {"Hani", "Brai"},
	family = "sit",
	ancestors = {"ltc"},
	sort_key = "zh-sortkey",
}

m["zu"] = {
	canonicalName = "Zulu",
	otherNames = {"isiZulu"},
	scripts = {"Latn"},
	family = "bnt-ngu",
	entry_name = {
                from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
                to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

return m