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This documentation is for Module:ru-verb and for all the templates that use this module ({{ru-conj}}, {{ru-conj-old}}, {{ru-generate-verb-forms}}).

Contents

ParametersEdit

IntroductionEdit

Russian verbs are complex. This module is designed to allow all the complexities to be specified as easily as possible, following the scheme of Andrey Zaliznyak. In general, the basic parameters to control the form of a verb are numbered parameters; named parameters control ancillary aspects such as overriding individual forms or adding footnotes. Examples:

  • {{ru-conj|pf|1a+p|сде́лать}}

This specifies the conjugation of the verb сде́лать (sdélatʹ), which is a perfective verb (code pf), of verb class 1a (code 1a), with a past passive participle (code +p). The meanings of the various verb classes are documented below under #Verb classes.

  • {{ru-conj|impf-impers|5b/c''|спа́ться}}

This specifies the conjugation of the verb спа́ться (spátʹsja), which is an imperfective impersonal verb (code impf-impers), of verb class 5b (code 5b), whose past tense is conjugated according to accent pattern c'' (code /c''). The meanings of the various past-tense accent patterns are documented below under #Past stress variants.

  • {{ru-conj|impf-intr|6°a|жа́ждать|pradp=жа́ждая}}

This specifies the conjugation of the verb жа́ждать (žáždatʹ), which is an imperfective intransitive verb (code impf-intr), of verb class 6°a (code 6°a). The present adverbial participle is irregular and needs to be specified explicitly (named parameter |pradp=). The various named parameters for overriding individual forms are documented below under #Overrides and alternative forms.

Numbered parametersEdit

All templates that use this module require the first, second and third parameters to be specified, and sometimes further parameters are required or optional.

The first parameter indicates the type of verb:

  • impf - imperfective, transitive (or reflexive if the infinitive is reflexive)
  • pf - perfective, transitive (or reflexive if the infinitive is reflexive)
  • impf-intr - imperfective, intransitive (not allowed for reflexive verbs)
  • pf-intr - perfective, intransitive (not allowed for reflexive verbs)
  • impf-impers - imperfective, transitive (or reflexive if the infinitive is reflexive), impersonal
  • pf-impers - perfective, transitive (or reflexive if the infinitive is reflexive), impersonal
  • impf-intr-impers - imperfective, intransitive (not allowed for reflexive verbs), impersonal
  • pf-intr-impers - perfective, intransitive (not allowed for reflexive verbs), impersonal

The second parameter is the verb class, e.g. 1a for verb class 1a. It can also support variant codes (see below), e.g. 7b/b for class 7b with past-tense stress pattern b, or 4c(4) for class 4c with variant code (4) (which indicates a different stress pattern in the present active participle). Note that for classes with a ° sign in them, a o (lowercase O) can be used instead, e.g. for class 3°a the verb class code 3oa can also be used in addition to 3°a; the latter is preferred.

The third parameter is the stressed infinitive, i.e. the full infinitive (including reflexive -ся or -сь if appropriate), with an acute accent placed on the stressed syllable. If the full infinitive is monosyllabic (e.g. быть (bytʹ), гнуть (gnutʹ), тлеть (tletʹ), etc.), the accent is optional. Note that if the infinitive is a suffix (e.g. -ве́ргнуть (-vérgnutʹ), -йти́ (-jtí), stressed -и́ть (-ítʹ), unstressed -ать (-atʹ), etc.), the accent should be included or omitted as appropriate.

The fourth parameter is the present-tense stem, minus any endings such as -у/-ю, -ешь/-ишь, etc. It should be stressed if the stem is stressed in any present-tense forms (accent patterns a and c), otherwise unstressed. Generally, this should be included only if it's not predictable from the infinitive. For some verb classes, it's required, for others it's optional, for yet others it's not allowed. See the descriptions of individual verb classes for more information.

A few classes have an optional fifth parameter, which specifies the form of the past tense. The exact semantics are documented in the descriptions of individual verb classes.

In all cases, a blank parameter is equivalent to a missing parameter.

Named parametersEdit

There are many named parameters used to override particular forms, supply alternative forms or control other aspects of the conjugation:

  • Parameters to override particular forms. These are documented below in #Overrides and alternative forms. As above, a blank parameter is equivalent to a missing parameter. If you need to specifically specify that a form doesn't exist, when it would normally be created, set its value to -.
    • The most commonly seen named parameter is the override parameter |past_pasv_part= or its alias |ppp=, which specifies the past passive participle form. Note that all verbs that have this participle need to explicitly specify it in one form or another, because it's unpredictable whether a given verb has such a participle; but it is now preferred to use variant codes, usually just +p, in place of explicitly specifying its value using an override.
  • Parameters for footnote symbols; see below.
  • Parameters to suppress parts of the conjugation and specify iterative verbs; see below.
  • |reflex_stress=ся́: Used for reflexive verbs that have a past masculine singular in stressed -ся́. Normally, unstressed -ся or -сь is automatically added to all active forms for reflexive verbs. If |reflex_stress=ся́ is given, then stressed -ся́ will instead be added to any past masculine singular form that lacks an accent.
  • |asif_prefix=: If specified, pretend as if this prefix is prepended to the verb when generating the verb forms. This is used when conjugating suffixes. For example, one of the variants of the suffix -а́ть (-átʹ) occurs particularly after the hushing consonants ш щ ч ж; to get the right verb forms for this suffix one needs to use a hushing consonant as an as-if-prefix, like this:
    • {{ru-conj|impf-intr|5b|-а́ть|asif_prefix=ж}}
  • |has_ppp=y, |has_prpp=y: If specified, indicate that an intransitive verb has (respectively) a past passive participle or present passive participle.

Past stress, imperative ending and other variant codesEdit

Many verb classes take a variant-code parameter, which may control the stress in the past tense, the ending of the imperative and/or other things. The variant codes are specified as part of parameter 2, directly following the verb class. Past-stress variant codes need to have a slash before them, e.g. 14b/c' for verb class 14b and past-stress variant c'. Other variant codes are attached directly without any separators, e.g. 4aщ+p for похи́тить (poxítitʹ), which specifies verb class 4a with two variant codes: щ (indicating that the first-person singular and past passive participle have щ rather than ч at the end of the stem) and +p (indicating that the verb has a past passive participle). There is no order required for such variant codes; 4a+pщ is equally allowed. An example with three variant codes is 4b/c+pжд for роди́ть (rodítʹ), which specifies verb class 4b with past-stress variant c and additional variant codes +p (indicating that the verb has a past passive participle) and жд (indicating the the past passive participle's stem ends in жд rather than ж). As previously, the order of the variant codes is immaterial; for example, 4bжд+p/c would work equally as well.

Note that the * variant code indicating a longer prefix in the present/future tense (e.g. future 1sg. разошью́ (razošʹjú) from расши́ть (rasšítʹ)) is handled specially. It is normally placed in the middle of the verb class (e.g. 9*b or 11*b), and will only be recognized in this position or directly following the verb class (e.g. 9b*). The reason for this is that /b* is a valid past stress variant code, and the two uses of * would otherwise conflict.

The allowable codes differ from class to class and are specified in the documentation for the particular class, but are a subset of the following codes. When multiple codes need to be specified, just append them all together without spaces or other separators. Note that the particular form of the codes is chosen to be compatible with A. A. Zaliznyak's dictionaries.

Past stress variantsEdit

For the classes that allow the stress in the past tense to be specified, the following codes are allowed (using a prefixed derivative of дать (datʹ) as an example):

  • /a: -да́л, -да́ла, -да́ло, -да́ли
  • /a(1): -́дал, -́дала, -́дало, -́дали (i.e. with stress on the prefix; used for вы́дать (výdatʹ), вы́даться (výdatʹsja))
  • /b: -да́л, -дала́, -дало́, -дали́
  • /b* (reflexive verbs): -дался́, -дала́сь, -дало́сь, -дали́сь
  • /c: -да́л, -да́ла, -дало́, -да́ли
  • /c(1): -́дал, -дала́, -́дало, -́дали (i.e. with stress on the prefix in most cases)
  • /c': -да́л, -да́ла, -да́ло/-дало́, -да́ли
  • /c'' (reflexive verbs): -да́лся/-дался́, -дала́сь, -дало́сь/-да́лось, -дали́сь/-да́лись (with a footnote indicating that -дался́ is dated)
  • /c''-bd (reflexive verbs): Same as /c'' but the footnote says "is becoming dated" instead of "is dated"
  • /c''-nd (reflexive verbs): Same as /c'' but without the "is dated" footnote
  • /c''(1) (reflexive verbs): -дался́/-́дался, -дала́сь, -дало́сь/-́далось, -дали́сь/-́дались (i.e. with stress on the prefix in some cases)

The past stress variant should be separated from the verb class by a slash, e.g. 7b/b.

A comma-separated list of codes is also possible, e.g.

  • /c(1),c: -́дал/-да́л, -дала́, -́дало/-да́ло, -́дали/-да́ли (i.e. with stress on the prefix in some cases)
  • /c,c(1): -да́л/-́дал, -дала́, -да́ло/-́дало, -да́ли/-́дали (i.e. with stress on the prefix in some cases)
  • (etc.)

When multiple codes are specified, duplicate forms will not appear.

The default for the past stress is /a.

Note that some of the above patterns call for stress on the prefix. Normally the last syllable is stressed (e.g. припо́д-), but пере- is stressed as пе́ре-, and рас and раз are converted into ро́с- and ро́з-.

Imperative endingEdit

The following codes are allowed in classes that allow the imperative ending to be specified.

  • и: Ending is -и in both singular and plural.
  • ь: If the stem ends in a consonant, ending is -ь in both singular and plural; else, -й in both singular and plural.
  • й: Same as ь.
  • (2): Same as ь, but only allowed for verbs in вы́-.
  • [(2)]: Ending is both -и and -ь/й in singular and plural.
  • (3): Ending is -и in singular but -ь/й in plural.
  • [(3)]: Ending is both -и and -ь/й in singular, but -ь/й only in plural.

For verbs that use imperative-ending codes, the default ending is as follows:

  • If the stem ends in a vowel: -и́ for classes 4b and 4c, -и for class 4a if the stem begins in вы́-, else й
  • If the stem ends in a consonant: -и́ for classes b and c in general, else -и if the stem begins in вы́- or ends in two consonants or -щ (e.g. мо́рщить (mórščitʹ)), else -ь (e.g. бре́дить (bréditʹ))

Past passive participleEdit

The following codes are used both for specifying that a verb has a past passive participle (PPP), and specifying how it is to be formed. Note that each particular verb class allows only some of these codes to be specified; the codes that are allowed are specified in the class's documentation. If none of +p, (7), [(7)], (8) and [(8)] is given, no PPP will exist. If none of these codes is given, the remaining codes ё and жд cannot be given, and no codes can be given for intransitive and reflexive verbs, which do not have PPP's.

  • +p: Allowed for all classes. Specifies that a PPP is to be formed the "normal" way (which depends on the particular class).
  • (7): For certain classes: Specify that a PPP is to be formed with stress on the ending (-а́нный, -я́нный, -ённый, -у́тый, etc.) instead of on the preceding syllable, where it normally would be.
  • [(7)]: For certain classes: Specify that a PPP can be formed in two ways: the normal way with stress on the syllable preceding the ending, and also with stress on the ending, as in (7).
  • (8): For class 4b: Specify that a PPP is to be formed with stress on the syllable preceding the ending (-́енный) instead of on the ending (-ённый), where it normally would be.
  • [(8)]: For class 4b: Specify that a PPP can be formed in two ways: the normal way with stress on ending (-ённый), and also with stress on the syllable preceding the ending (-́енный), as in (8).
  • ё: For the classes that allow code (7): Specify that an -е- changes into -ё- when the stress moves onto it. This is useful when the stem normally has ending stress but the PPP rules call for the stress to be on the preceding syllable; e.g. 1a наверста́ть (naverstátʹ), PPP навёрстанный (navjórstannyj); 3b поверну́ть (povernútʹ), PPP повёрнутый (povjórnutyj); 5b облежа́ть (obležátʹ), PPP облёжанный (obljóžannyj). Not required or allowed in class 2 verbs in -ева́ть, which will automatically have -ёванный unless code (7) is used (note that verbs in -цева́ть will have -цо́ванный in the same circumstances).
  • жд: For class 4: Specify that a stem with final -д changes into -жд instead of iotating normally to -ж, e.g. 4b роди́ть (rodítʹ), PPP рождённый (roždjónnyj).

Other variantsEdit

  • (4): For class 4c and 5c: Present active participle ends in -́ящий (-́ащий for verbs ending in one of the hushing consonants ж ч ш щ), with stress on the final syllable of the stem, instead of the expected -я́щий/-а́щий with stress on the ending.
  • [(4)]: For class 4c and 5c: Present active participle ends in both -́ящий/-́ащий and -я́щий/-а́щий.
  • (5): For class 3°a: Only long masc sg. past (with -ну-).
  • [(5)]: For class 3°a: Both short and long masc. sg. past (with and without -ну-).
  • no (5) or [(5)]: For class 3°a: Only short masc sg. past (without -ну-).
  • (6): For class 3°a: Only long past active/adverbial participles (with -ну-).
  • [(6)]: For class 3°a: Both short and long past active/adverbial participles (with and without -ну-).
  • no (6) or [(6)]: For class 3°a: Only short past active/adverbial participles (without -ну-).
  • [(5)(6)]: For class 3°a: Equivalent to [(5)][(6)].
  • no (5) or [(5)]: For class 3°a: Only short masc sg. past (without -ну-).
  • (9): For class 7b: Past adverbial participle ends in -я́ (normally the present adverbial participle ending); the expected endings -(в)(ши) are dated.
  • щ: For class 4 and 6 whose stem ends in -т: Iotated version ends in -щ instead of -ч. Examples: class 4a похи́тить (poxítitʹ), 1sg похи́щу (poxíšču); class 4b защити́ть (zaščitítʹ), 1sg защищу́ (zaščiščú); class 4c поглоти́ть (poglotítʹ), 1sg поглощу́ (pogloščú); class 6c клевета́ть (klevetátʹ), 1sg клевещу́ (kleveščú).
  • *: For class 9b and 11b: Present tense has an extra -о- at the end of the prefix. Examples: class 9b растере́ть (rasterétʹ), 1sg разотру́ (razotrú); class 11b отби́ться (otbítʹsja), 1sg отобью́сь (otobʹjúsʹ). The variation between рас-/разо-, ис-/изо-, and вс-/взо- is automatically handled. Note that the * variant code should normally be placed in the middle of the verb class (e.g. 9*b or 11*b), and will only be recognized in this position or directly following the verb class (e.g. 9b*), to avoid a conflict with past stress variant /b*.

Overrides and alternative formsEdit

All forms can be overridden using override parameters. Each form except the infinitive has three alternatives that can be overridden, to specify up to four possibilities for each form. For example, the feminine singular past can be overridden using |past_f=, and the three alternatives can be overridden using |past_f2=, |past_f3= and |past_f4=. Overriding the alternative forms is useful, for example, to add an alternative to the existing form or forms that are generated by the module. There is no problem if e.g. |past_f3= has a value but |past_f2= does not.

The following is the full list of forms:

Form code Alias Form Notes
pres_1sg First-person singular present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_2sg Second-person singular present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_3sg Third-person singular present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_1pl First-person plural present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_2pl Second-person plural present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_3pl Third-person plural present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
futr_1sg First-person singular future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_2sg Second-person singular future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_3sg Third-person singular future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_1pl First-person plural future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_2pl Second-person plural future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_3pl Third-person plural future indicative Only for perfective verbs
impr_sg Second-person singular imperative
impr_pl Second-person plural imperative
past_m Masculine singular past indicative
past_f Feminine singular past indicative
past_n Neuter singular past indicative
past_p Plural past indicative
past_m_short Short masculine singular past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
past_f_short Short feminine singular past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
past_n_short Short neuter singular past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
past_p_short Short plural past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
pres_actv_part prap Present active participle only for imperfective verbs
past_actv_part pap Past active participle
pres_pasv_part prpp Present passive participle only for imperfective verbs
past_pasv_part ppp Past passive participle
pres_adv_part pradp Present adverbial participle only for imperfective verbs
past_adv_part padp Past adverbial participle Form with -ши
past_adv_part_short padp_short Short past adverbial participle Form without -ши; not for reflexive verbs
infinitive Infinitive Does not have alternatives

Furthermore:

  • Intransitive verbs do not have passive participles.
  • Impersonal verbs have only the following forms:
    • Third-person singular present and future indicative
    • Neuter singular past indicative
    • Present and past passive participles
    • Infinitive

Participle aliasesEdit

The override parameters for participles are rather long, and shorter aliases are provided to make it easier to enter them:

Short form Equivalent long form Meaning
prap pres_actv_part Present active participle
prpp pres_pasv_part Present passive participle
pap past_actv_part Past active participle
ppp past_pasv_part Past passive participle
pradp pres_adv_part Present adverbial participle
padp past_adv_part Past adverbial participle
padp_short past_adv_part_short Short past adverbial participle

The alternative parameters have similar short aliases, e.g. |ppp2= is the same as |past_pasv_part2=.

Similar aliases are provided for the footnote parameters ending in tail and tailall:

  • |ppptail= is the same as |past_pasv_part_tail=.
  • |ppptailall= is the same as |past_pasv_part_tailall=.
  • |praptail= is the same as |pres_actv_part_tail=.
  • |praptailall= is the same as |pres_actv_part_tailall=.
  • etc.

Specifying multiple conjugationsEdit

Some verbs can be conjugated according to more than one conjugation. This happens especially with verbs that can be either type 4b or 4c. It is possible to express this by following the numbered parameters for a conjugation with the word or, followed by another conjugation (i.e. all numbered parameters except the first one corresponding to the verb type). Examples:

Suppressing parts of the conjugation and specifying iterative verbsEdit

Some verbs are defective, i.e. they lack parts of the conjugation. You can specify that a particular form doesn't exist by setting its value to -, e.g. |futr_1sg=- in a number of verbs. However, when an entire tense is missing, it can be more convenient to use one of the following parameters:

A special class of defective verbs are iterative verbs (also called frequentative), used to express the concept of doing an action repeatedly. These verbs are always imperfective and are found only in the infinitive and the past (i.e. they are missing the present, future and imperative). This can be specified using iter=1 (e.g. пи́сывать (písyvatʹ), ха́живать (xáživatʹ), бира́ть (birátʹ)). In addition to disabling the missing forms, it places the verb into Category:Russian iterative verbs.

Manual transliterationEdit

Currently, explicit manual transliteration can be specified in all subclasses of classes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Separate the Cyrillic and transliteration with a //.

Example:

  • семпли́ровать (sɛmplírovatʹ): {{ru-conj|impf|2a+p|семпли́ровать//sɛmplírovatʹ}}
  • зафре́ндить (zafrɛ́nditʹ): {{ru-conj|pf|4a[(2)]|зафре́ндить//zafrɛ́nditʹ|ppp=зафре́нженный//zafrɛ́nžennyj|ppp2=зафре́ндженный//zafrɛ́ndžennyj|futr_1sg2=зафре́нджу//zafrɛ́ndžu|futr_1sg3=зафре́ндю//zafrɛ́ndju|padp2=зафре́ндя//zafrɛ́ndja}}

Note that manual transliteration is supported for all aspects of the classes that support it, including, among other things, manual overrides and automatic past passive participle generation, as shown by the examples.

Pre-reform conjugationsEdit

Pre-reform conjugations are specified using the template {{ru-conj-old}} instead of {{ru-conj|}}, or by using |old=y.

Footnote symbolsEdit

A system is in place for inserting usage notes into conjugation tables, in the form of footnotes. Footnote symbols attached to the end of a manual override are recognized automatically; they are automatically superscripted and do not interfere with linking. Examples of such symbols are *, @, ~ and various other ASCII symbols; numbers; _, which is automatically converted to a space; and most Unicode symbols (§, ¤, , , , etc.). You can also attach these symbols using parameters such as |pltail=. The usage note itself is inserted using |notes=.

|notes=, |notes2=, |notes3=, ...
Usage note(s) to insert into the table. Footnote symbols at the beginning of the note are automatically superscripted.
|pasttail=
Specify text to append directly to the end of past-tense entries with more than one form (except those with explicit overrides). Normally used to add a footnote symbol to those entries, to add a usage note to alternate past-tense forms.
|prestail=
Same but for present-tense entries.
|futrtail=
Same but for future-tense entries.
|imprtail=
Same but for imperative entries.
|parttail=
Same but for participle entries.
|pasttailall=
Like |pasttail= but appends to all past-tense entries (except those with explicit overrides). Normally used to add a footnote symbol, in order to add a usage note about the past-tense forms.
|prestailall=
Same but for present-tense entries.
|futrtailall=
Same but for future-tense entries.
|imprtailall=
Same but for imperative entries.
|parttailall=
Same but for participle entries.
|MAINFORM_tail=
Append a footnote symbol to the last entry for a particular form. Note that this differs from |pasttail=, |prestail=, and |futrtail= in that it will be appended even if there's only one form. The possible values of MAINFORM are the same as for overrides, except that only main forms are recognized (e.g. use |pres_1sg_tail=, not |pres_1sg2_tail=).
|MAINFORM_tailall=
Same but append to all entries.
|FORM_sym=
Append a footnote symbol to the specified form. This differs from |MAINFORM_tail= in that FORM can be any value for which an override exists, including e.g. |pres_1sg2_sym=.

Handling exceptional verbs with normal present passive participles in classes without themEdit

Class-4 verbs (in -ить) normally have rare and awkward present passive participles (e.g. гра́бимый (grábimyj) of гра́бить (grábitʹ) and хорони́мый (xoronímyj) of хорони́ть (xoronítʹ)) but some verbs have normal present passive participles (e.g. води́мый (vodímyj) of води́ть (vodítʹ)). Similarly, class-6a verbs in -ать normally have no present passive participle, but some verbs have normal present passive participles (e.g. коле́блемый (koléblemyj) of колеба́ть (kolebátʹ)). You can specify that a present passive participle should be generated normally even if it normally would be missing or marked as awkward by using |prpp=+ or |pres_pasv_part=+.

Verb classesEdit

Note that verb classes come in 3 stress patterns:

  • Pattern a: accent in the present/future is consistently on the stem
  • Pattern b: accent in the present/future is consistently on the endings
  • Pattern c: accent in the present/future is on the ending in the first singular, and otherwise on the stem

Verbs also come in two conjugations:

  • Conjugation I has third-person plural in -ут or -ют, and 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl usually in -е- or -ё-.
  • Conjugation II has third-person plural in -ят, and 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl in -и-.

Verbs come in 16 classes, plus some irregular variations. The 16 classes are as follows:

Class Infinitive Pres 1sg Pres 3sg
1 -ать
-ять
-еть
-аю
-яю
-ею
-ает
-яет
-еет
2 -овать
-евать
-евать
-ую
-ую
-юю
-ует
-ует
-юет
3 -нуть -ну -нет
4 -ить -ю/-у -ит
5 -ать
-ять
-еть
-ю/-у -ит
6 -ать
-ять
-ю/-у -ет
7 -зти/-зть -зу -зет
-сти/-сть -су
-ду
-ту
-сту
-бу
-сет
-дет
-тет
-стет
-бет
8 -чь -гу
-ку
-жет
-чет
9 -ереть -ру -рет
10 -олоть
-ороть
-олю
-орю
-олет
-орет
11 -ить -ью -ьет
12 -ыть
-уть
-ить
-ою
-ую
-ию
-оет
-ует
-иет
13 -авать -аю -ает
14 -ать/-ять -ну
-му
-иму
-нет
-мет
-имет
15 -ть -ну -нет
16 -ть -ву -вет

Class 1aEdit

  • verbs in -ать/-ять (some in -еть), conjugation I, stress pattern a:
    • -ать (-аю, -ает)
    • -ять (-яю, -яет)
    • -еть (-ею, -еет)

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Note that specifying |ppp=- to indicate a missing past passive participle isn't necessary for imperfective verbs but is done in жале́ть (žalétʹ) for clarity, since transitive imperfective verbs that were not formed by suffixing a perfective verb normally do have a past passive participle.

Class 2aEdit

  • verbs in -овать/-евать, conjugation I, stress pattern a:
    • -овать (-ую, -ует/-уёт)
    • -евать (-юю, -юет/-юёт), (-ую, -ует/-уёт) (after ш, щ, ж, ч, ц)

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)]. Note that ё is not allowed but is automatic in verbs ending in -ева́ть, with participles in -ёванный, and is indicated in the title line of the declension table (verbs in -цева́ть have participles -цо́ванный and have the indication -о- in the title line).

Examples:

Class 2bEdit

  • verbs in -овать/-евать, conjugation I, stress pattern b:

Identical to class 2a except for the stress pattern.

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)]. Note that ё is not allowed but is automatic in verbs ending in -ева́ть, with participles in -ёванный, and is indicated in the title line of the declension table (verbs in -цевать have participles -цо́ванный and have the indication -о- in the title line).

Class 3aEdit

  • verbs in -нуть, conjugation I, stress pattern a, long past-tense forms (including -ну-).

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are imperative-ending codes, as well as the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 3°aEdit

  • verbs in -нуть, conjugation I, stress pattern a, short past-tense forms (lacking -ну-, except perhaps in the masculine singular).

Note that these verbs can use both 3°a and 3oa as the code.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are (5) or [(5)], (6) or [(6)], an imperative-ending code, as well as the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё; [(5)(6)] can be written and is equivalent to [(5)][(6)].

Examples:

Class 3bEdit

  • verbs in -ну́ть, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 3cEdit

  • verbs in -ну́ть, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 4aEdit

  • verbs in -ить, conjugation II, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, щ, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and жд.

Examples:

Class 4bEdit

  • verbs in -и́ть, conjugation II, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, щ and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (8), [(8)] and жд.

Examples:

Class 4cEdit

  • verbs in -и́ть, conjugation II, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, щ, the present-active-participle codes (4) and [(4)], and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and жд.

Examples:

(In the example above with води́ть (vodítʹ), we request a normal present passive participle; otherwise, it would marked as "rare and awkward", as with вари́ть (varítʹ).)

Class 4a//1aEdit

Verbs of this class can have forms of either 4a or 1a, and use the code 4a1a. All verbs of this type are derivatives of either ме́рить (méritʹ) or му́чить (múčitʹ), and have alternative class-1a present and imperative forms (as well as perfective future forms) derived as if from ме́рять or му́чать. (These verbs actually exist and are colloquial alternatives, especially in the past and infinitive.) See verbal section 16 of A.A. Zaliznyak's book Грамматический Словарь Русского Языка, described on page 142 of the 1980 edition. The infinitive and past forms are identical for both classes.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

The allowed variants are the same as for class 4a.

Examples:

Class 5aEdit

  • verbs in -еть (-ять after vowels, -ать after ш/щ/ч/ж), conjugation II, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 5bEdit

  • verbs in -е́ть (-я́ть after vowels, -а́ть after ш/щ/ч/ж), conjugation II, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 2) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 5cEdit

  • verbs in -е́ть (-я́ть after vowels, -а́ть after ш/щ/ч/ж, гнать exceptionally), conjugation II, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, the present-active-participle codes (4) and [(4)], and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Note that specifying |ppp=- to indicate a missing past passive participle isn't necessary for imperfective verbs but is done in терпе́ть (terpétʹ) and гнать (gnatʹ) for clarity, since transitive imperfective verbs that were not formed by suffixing a perfective verb normally do have a past passive participle.

Class 6aEdit

  • verbs in -ать (-ять after vowels), iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

(In the last example, we mark the past passive participle as nonexistent using |ppp=- and request a normal present passive participle using |prpp=+; otherwise, no present passive participle would be generated.)

Class 6°aEdit

  • verbs in -ать, non-iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Note that these verbs can use both 6°a and 6oa as the code.

Examples:

Class 6bEdit

  • verbs in -а́ть (-я́ть after vowels), iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6°bEdit

  • verbs in -а́ть, non-iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; should not have stress

Note that these verbs can use both 6°b and 6ob as the code.

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6cEdit

  • verbs in -а́ть (-я́ть after vowels), iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are щ, past stress, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6°cEdit

  • verbs in -ать, non-iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem, if different from the infinitive stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Note that these verbs can use both 6°c and 6oc as the code.

All verbs in this class are derivatives of стона́ть (stonátʹ).

Examples:

Class 6a//1a and 6c//1a, §13Edit

Verbs of this class can have forms of either 6a/6c or 1a, and use the codes 6a1as13 (because there is another 6a//1a variant) and 6c1a.

Section 13 refers to a notation in A.A. Zaliznyak's book Грамматический Словарь Русского Языка, described on page 141 of the 1980 edition. The infinitive and past forms are identical for both classes. In the finite present (or perfective future) tense and the present active participle, the class 6 forms are preferred and the class 1a forms are considered colloquial. In the remaining present participles and the imperative, forms of both classes are equally preferred.

Parameters are as in class 6a or 6c.

Examples:

Class 6a//1a and 1a//6a, §14Edit

Verbs of this class can have forms of either 6a or 1a, and use the codes 6a1as14 (because there is another 6a//1a variant) and 1a6a.

Section 14 refers to a notation in A.A. Zaliznyak's book Грамматический Словарь Русского Языка, described on page 141 of the 1980 edition. The infinitive and past forms are identical for both classes. In the present adverbial participle and imperative, the class 1 forms are preferred and the class 6 forms are dated. In the remaininder of the present (and perfective future), forms of one class or the other are slightly preferred: class 6 for 6a//1a, class 1 for 1a//6a.

Parameters are as in class 6a.

Examples:

Class 7aEdit

  • verbs in -сти/сть, -зти/-зть, present tense stem ending in various consonants, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem; needs to have the stress indicated; multiple stems can be specified, separated by commas
  • 5 (optional): the past stem; needs to have the stress indicated; normally should be omitted, and defaults to the infinitive (but ending in д, т, с, з, б or ст of the present stem, except in verbs in -сть where the present stem ends in д or т, in which case the default value ends in a vowel)

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, imperative-ending codes, (9) and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 7bEdit

  • verbs in -сти́/сть, -зти́/-зть, present tense stem ending in various consonants, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem; should not have stress; multiple stems can be specified, separated by commas
  • 5 (optional): the past stem; needs to have the stress indicated; normally should be omitted, and defaults to the infinitive (but ending in д, т, с, з, б or ст of the present stem, except in verbs in -сть where the present stem ends in д or т, in which case the default value ends in a vowel); the special argument ёе should be used if the past tense masculine singular has ё in it but the past active and adverbial participles have е

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, (9) and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 8aEdit

  • verbs in -чь, present tense in -г-/-к- (iotated to -ж-/-ч- in the 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem, in non-iotated form; needs to have the stress indicated
  • 5 (optional): the stressed past stem, used for the masculine singular past and as the stem of past participles; needs to have the stress indicated, defaults to the present stem

The default for the present passive participle, present adverbial participle, and short past adverbial participle are blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Examples:

Class 8bEdit

  • verbs in -чь, present tense in -г-/-к- (iotated to -ж-/-ч- in the 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl), conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem, in non-iotated form; should not have stress
  • 5 (optional): one or more stressed past stems separated by commas, used for the masculine singular past and as the stem of past participles; needs to have the stress indicated, defaults to the present stem with the last vowel stressed (actually to the special value ё, see below)

For the stressed past stem (param 5), the special arguments ё, е or ёе can be used in conjunction with verbs whose infinitive ends in -ечь. The argument ё is the default, and indicates that the stressed past stem should have ё in place of the last е. The argument е contrarily indicates that the stressed past stem should have е́, and the argument ёе indicates that the stressed past stem should have ё in the masculine singular past but е́ in the past active and adverbial participles.

The default for the present passive participle, present adverbial participle, and short past adverbial participle are blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 9aEdit

  • verbs in -ереть, present tense in -р- (no root vowel), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

These verbs only occur in the perfective.

Examples:

Class 9bEdit

  • verbs in -ере́ть, present tense in -р- (no root vowel), conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem; should not have stress
  • 5 (optional): the past participle stem, minus -ши(й); needs to have the stress indicated; used for the past active and adverbial participles, defaults to the value of past_m; multiple stems can be specified, separated by commas

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, the past-passive-participle code +p and the long prefix code *.

The default for the present passive participle, present adverbial participle, and (in the imperfect) the short past adverbial participle are blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Examples:

Class 10aEdit

  • verbs in -олоть or -ороть, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)].

These verbs only occur in the perfective.

Examples:

Class 10cEdit

  • verbs mostly in -оло́ть or -оро́ть, conjugation I, stress pattern c.
  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)].

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Class 11aEdit

  • verbs in -ить, present tense in -ью/-ьет, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

These verbs only occur in the perfective.

Examples:

Class 11bEdit

  • verbs in -и́ть, present tense in -ью́/-ьёт, conjugation I, stress pattern b.
  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem; should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes, the past-passive-participle code +p and the long prefix code *.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Class 12aEdit

  • verbs in a single-syllable root ending in a vowel, usually infinitive -ыть (present tense -о́ю) or -уть (present tense -у́ю), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 12bEdit

  • петь (petʹ) (пою́, поёт), гнить (gnitʹ) (гнию́, гниёт) and derivatives, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (optional): the present stem; should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Class 13bEdit

  • verbs in -ава́ть (present tense -аю́, -аёт), conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 14aEdit

  • one verb вы́жать (výžatʹ) (present tense вы́жму, вы́жмет), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Example (only one):

Class 14bEdit

  • verbs in a single-syllable root ending in infinitive -ать or -ять, present tense in -н- or -м- (no root vowel) or in -им-, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem; should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Class 14cEdit

  • verbs in a single-syllable root ending in infinitive -ать or -ять, present tense in -н- or -м- (no root vowel) or in -им-, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive
  • 4 (required): the present stem; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Class 15aEdit

  • verbs in a single-syllable root, present tense in full root plus -н-, conjugation I, stress pattern a. All verbs are derivatives of деть (detʹ), стать (statʹ), стыть (stytʹ), or -стрять (-strjatʹ).

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive and present adverbial participle is blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Examples:

Class 16aEdit

  • verbs in a single-syllable root, present tense in full root plus -в-, conjugation I, stress pattern a. All verbs begin with вы́- (vý-) and are perfective.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 16bEdit

  • verbs in a single-syllable root, present tense in full root plus -в-, conjugation I, stress pattern b. All verbs are derivatives of жить (žitʹ), плыть (plytʹ), or слыть (slytʹ).

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Irregular verbsEdit

There are numerous irregular verbs that don't fit into the above classes. All of them use class irreg. The following is the full list of irregular main verbs supported (prefixed and reflexive variants are also supported):

Note that pre-reform verbs such as ѣ́хать (jě́xatʹ) still must be invoked using {{ru-conj-old}} (not {{ru-conj|}}) despite the fact that the spelling itself indicates a pre-reform verb.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stressed infinitive

Allowed variants (param 2) are past stress codes for the verbs быть (bytʹ), дать (datʹ), клясть (kljastʹ) and derivatives, and +p for быть (bytʹ), внять (vnjatʹ), дать (datʹ), есть (jestʹ), живописа́ть (živopisátʹ), идти́ (idtí), има́ть (imátʹ), клясть (kljastʹ), лгать (lgatʹ), минова́ть (minovátʹ), мину́ть (minútʹ), обя́зывать (objázyvatʹ), стели́ть (stelítʹ), сы́пать (sýpatʹ), честь (čestʹ), чтить (čtitʹ), -шиби́ть (-šibítʹ) and derivatives; otherwise, no variant codes are allowed.

Examples: