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Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/fōr

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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-GermanicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *ph₂wṓr, earlier *péh₂wōr, collective of *péh₂wr̥.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

*fōr n

  1. fire

InflectionEdit

The original heteroclitic alternation of r/n is preserved.

Simms posits several stages of development of this word. Since no single paradigm can be asserted for Proto-Germanic at any given point in time, the developments are detailed below.

Paradigm 1: The original paradigm as inherited from PIE.

paradigm 1Declension of *fōr (paradigm 1)
singular
nominative *fōr
vocative *fōr
accusative *fōr
genitive *funiz
dative *funi
instrumental *funē

Paradigm 2: An alternative paradigm was later formed based on the stem *fu- and regular n-stem endings. The two formations coexisted side by side for a period.

paradigm 2Declension of *fōr (paradigm 2)
singular
nominative *fōr
vocative *fōr
accusative *fōr
genitive *fuiniz
dative *fuini
instrumental *fuinē

Paradigm 3: At a certain point in time, the two paradigms above were blended, attaching n-stem endings to the stem *fun-. Paradigm 1 was lost after that, paradigms 2 and 3 continued to exist side by side.

paradigm 3Declension of *fōr (paradigm 3)
singular
nominative *fōr
vocative *fōr
accusative *fōr
genitive *funiniz
dative *funini
instrumental *funinē

After the above stages, paradigms 2 and 3 finally split. In paradigm 2 the -r- was generalised to all forms, creating *fōr, *fuïr-, which is found in North and West Germanic. In paradigm 3, the -n- was generalised to the nominative, creating *fōn, *funin- as found in Gothic and in the Old Norse form funi.

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit