Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-yōs

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

For **-yoss (stem + nominative *-s). It was directly added to the e-grade root (if there was one) rather than to the stem of the adjective.

SuffixEdit

*-(é)-yōs

  1. Forms adjectives from roots, meaning "very" or "rather".

DeclensionEdit

Athematic, amphikinetic
masculine feminine
nominative *-(é)-yōs *-(∅)-yésih₂
genitive *-(∅)-isés *-(∅)-isyéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *-(é)-yōs *-(é)-yosh₁(e) *-(é)-yoses
vocative *-(é)-yos *-(é)-yosh₁(e) *-(é)-yoses
accusative *-(é)-yosm̥ *-(é)-yosh₁(e) *-(é)-yosm̥s
genitive *-(∅)-isés *? *-(∅)-isóHom
ablative *-(∅)-isés *? *-(∅)-ismós
dative *-(∅)-iséy *? *-(∅)-ismós
locative *-(∅)-yés, *-(∅)-yési *? *-(∅)-isú
instrumental *-(∅)-iséh₁ *? *-(∅)-isbʰí
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *-(∅)-yésih₂ *-(∅)-yésih₂h₁(e) *-(∅)-yésih₂es
vocative *-(∅)-yésih₂ *-(∅)-yésih₂h₁(e) *-(∅)-yésih₂es
accusative *-(∅)-yésih₂m̥ *-(∅)-yésih₂h₁(e) *-(∅)-yésih₂m̥s
genitive *-(∅)-isyéh₂s *? *-(∅)-isyéh₂oHom
ablative *-(∅)-isyéh₂s *? *-(∅)-isyéh₂mos
dative *-(∅)-isyéh₂ey *? *-(∅)-isyéh₂mos
locative *-(∅)-isyéh₂, *-(∅)-isyéh₂i *? *-(∅)-isyéh₂su
instrumental *-(∅)-isyéh₂h₁ *? *-(∅)-isyéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *-(é)-yos *-(é)-yosih₁ *-(é)-yōs
vocative *-(é)-yos *-(é)-yosih₁ *-(é)-yōs
accusative *-(é)-yos *-(é)-yosih₁ *-(é)-yōs
genitive *-(∅)-isés *? *-(∅)-isóHom
ablative *-(∅)-isés *? *-(∅)-ismós
dative *-(∅)-iséy *? *-(∅)-ismós
locative *-(∅)-yés, *-(∅)-yési *? *-(∅)-isú
instrumental *-(∅)-iséh₁ *? *-(∅)-isbʰí

Usage notesEdit

Adverbs were formed by using the stem, *-yos-, without any ending.

Derived termsEdit

Category Proto-Indo-European adjectives suffixed with *-yōs not found

DescendantsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit