This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

Perhaps from *dʰewgʰ- (to produce), originally meaning "the (potential) suckler, the one that draws milk" (compare Sanskrit दुहे (duhé) / दुग्धे (dugdhe)), +‎ *-tḗr, the suffix common to other r-stem kinship terms.

Noun edit

*dʰugh₂tḗr f

  1. daughter

Inflection edit

Athematic, hysterokinetic
nominative *dʰugh₂tḗr
genitive *dʰugtrés
singular dual plural
nominative *dʰugh₂tḗr *dʰugh₂térh₁(e) *dʰugh₂téres
vocative *dʰugh₂tér *dʰugh₂térh₁(e) *dʰugh₂téres
accusative *dʰugh₂térm̥ *dʰugh₂térh₁(e) *dʰugh₂térm̥s
genitive *dʰugtrés *? *dʰugtróHom
ablative *dʰugtrés *? *dʰugtr̥mós
dative *dʰugtréy *? *dʰugtr̥mós
locative *dʰugh₂tér, *dʰugh₂téri *? *dʰugtr̥sú
instrumental *dʰugtréh₁ *? *dʰugtr̥mís

Reconstruction notes edit

There are two PIE reconstructions that can be obtained using the comparative method:

  • *dʰugh₂ter- on the basis of: PIIr. *dʰugHtar- (Sanskrit duhitár-, PIr. *dʰugʰtar- > *dʰugdʰar- > *dugdar- > Gathic Avestan dugədar-), Ancient Greek thugátēr-, Tocharian A ckācer, Tocharian B tkācer
  • *dʰukter- on the basis of: Iranian *duxθrī (> Old Persian *duhçī) and *duxtar- (> New Persian duxtar) due to the absence of Bartholomae’s Law, possibly Gaulish duxtir, Gothic dáuhtar, Oscan fu-utreí (dative singular), Armenian dustr, Hieroglyphic Luwian t(u)watra/i-, Lycian kbatra-, Slavic *dъkti > *dъťi, Lithuanian duktė̃

The latter form is secondary, occurring due to the deletion of the medial laryngeal in the sequence CHCC in the oblique stem, which was paradigmatically leveled in the daughters. E.g. genitive singular *dʰugh₂tr̥és > *dʰuktr̥és. The CHCC > CCC change was a synchronic PIE phonological rule.

According to Kloekhorst, hieroglyphic Luwian tu(w)atra/i- and Lycian kbatra- reflect Proto-Luwic *duetr-, further reflecting Proto-Anatolian *duegtr- < PIE full-grade stem *dʰwegh₂ter-. The original inflection was thus hysterodynamic bandi-type as described by Beekes (1995: 175): *CéC-R, *CC-éR-m, *CC-R-ós:

  • Nominative singular: *dʰwégh₂-tr̥
  • Accusative singular: *dʰugh₂-tér-m̥
  • Genitive singular: *dʰugh₂-tr-ós

After the split of Anatolian branch from Proto-Indo-European, the other Indo-European languages underwent a common innovation, replacing the nominative stem *dʰwégh₂tr̥ by the accusative stem in the zero-grade *dʰúgh₂tēr which however retained the original accentuation and which further underlies the attested Greek forms *θύγατηρ (Homeric θύγατρα (thúgatra)) > θυγάτηρ (thugátēr) (θυγατέρα, θυγατρός). In the other Indo-European languages the accentuation of the accusative was later on transferred to the nominative form, yielding the oxytonic paradigm listed in the declension table, as retained in Sanskrit (duhitā́, duhitáram, duhitúḥ) and Lithuanian (duktė̃, dùkterį, dukterès).

Coordinate terms edit

Idioms edit

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • Hackstein, Olav (2002), Uridg. CH.CC > C.CC. Historische Sprachforschung 115.1–22.
  • Schmidt, Gernot (1973), Die iranischen Wörter für “Tochter” und “Vater” und die Reflexe des interkonsonantischen H (ə) in den idg. Sprachen. Kuhns’ Zeitschrift 87.36–83.
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2011), The accentuation of the PIE word for ‘daughter’. In: Pronk T., Derksen R. (eds.) Accent Matters. Papers on Balto-Slavic Accentology. 235–243.
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company

References edit

  1. ^ Calin, Didier (2017), “Day Sky's daughter (= Dawn-goddess)”, in Dictionary of Indo-European Poetic and Religious Themes (Linguistique; 3), Les Cent Chemins, →ISBN, page 62: “*Diwés dʰughtḗr/dʰughtéres”
  2. ^ RV.6.64.5c
  3. ^ RV.1.48.8c; RV.7.81.1b; SV.1.303b; 2.101b; TB.
  4. ^ "بیدخت", in Dehkhoda Dictionary (in Persian)
  5. ^ Calin, Didier (2017), “Day Sun's daughter (= female Night Sun, bride of the Divine Twins)”, in Dictionary of Indo-European Poetic and Religious Themes (Linguistique; 3), Les Cent Chemins, →ISBN, page 63: “*S(a)hw(e)liyosyo dʰughtḗr”
  6. ^ RV.3.53.15c, RV.4.43.2d; RV.9.1.6b, RV.9.113.3b; RV.1.116.17a, RV.1.117.13c, RV.1.118.5b, RV.6.63.5a; RV.9.72.3b; TS., VS.19.4
  7. ^ RV.7.69.4b
  8. ^ RV.1.34.5d