Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂welh₁-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

Alternative reconstructionsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Possibly connected to *welh₁- (to choose, wish)[3][4], but Hittite requires a leading h₂-. Furthermore, an argument against reconstructing a root-final h₁ is Old Irish follnaithir (rules), which point to h₂ instead. A connection with *HweRdʰ- (to become big/strong), Sanskrit वर्धते (to grow, várdhate), is also suggested.[1]

RootEdit

*h₂welh₁-[5]

  1. to rule
  2. strong, powerful
Derived termsEdit
  • *h₂wl̥-né-h₁-ti ~ *h₂wl̥-n-h₁-énti (nasal-infix present)[6][4]
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒄷𒌌𒇷𒄑𒍣 (ḫu-ul-le-ez-zi /hullezi/, to smash, to defeat)
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-eh₁-(ye)-ti[7]
  • *h₂wl̥-né-h₂-ti[8]
  • *welh₁-t ~ *wl̥h₁-ént (root aorist)[9]
    • Proto-Germanic: *wulþǭ (1st p. past tense)
      • >? Proto-Germanic: *waldaną (see there for further descendants) (back formation)[9]
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-etro-s[10]
  • *wolh₁-neh₂-mō ~ *wl̥h₁-neh₂-m̥n-és[11]
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-ont-s[12][13]
    • Proto-Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: wäl (king)
      • Tocharian B: walo (king)
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-o-s[14]
    • Proto-Celtic: *walos (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂wélh₁-ti-s ~ *h₂wl̥h₁-téy-s[15]
    • Proto-Celtic: *wlatis (see there for further descendants)

Extended form *h₂welh₁-dʰ-.

  • *h₂wélh₁-dʰe-ti (dʰe-present)[1]
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *waldaną (see there for further descendants) (alternatively)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: veldėti (to inherit; (obsolete) possess, govern)
      • Proto-Slavic: *volsti
  • *h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-eh₁-ti (éh₁-stative)[16]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:[2]
      • Proto-Slavic: *volděti (to rule) (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-éye-ti (eye-iterative)[17]
  • *h₂wolh₁-dʰ-tis
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Old Prussian: weldisnan sg (inheritance, acc)
    • Balto-Slavic:

Etymology 2Edit

Often compared to *welh₃- (to pluck) and *welH- (to turn).

RootEdit

*h₂welh₁-[19]

  1. hair; wool
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “1. *u̯elH-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 676-77
  2. 2.0 2.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*volděti; *voldati”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 524
  3. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “valdyti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 485–486
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “ḫullezi-/ḫull-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 358: “*h₂ul-né-h₁-ti, *h₂ul-n-h₁-énti”
  5. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  6. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*h₂ul-ne-h₁ti, *h₂ul-n-h₁enti”
  7. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*h₂ulh₁-eh₁”
  8. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*wal-na”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wl-neh₂-”
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂ulh₁-t-”
  10. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*walo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wlh₂etro-”
  11. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*walo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wolH-neh₂-(mōn)”
  12. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂wlh₁-ont-”
  13. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*ulH-nt”
  14. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*walo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wlHo-”
  15. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*ulHti-”
  16. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-eh₁”
  17. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-eie-”
  18. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*vȏlstь”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 526
  19. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1139