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Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/márkos

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

ReconstructionEdit

The reconstruction at the PIE level is disputed on several grounds:

  • limited geographical distribution in Western IE - only present in the Celtic and Germanic branches.
  • the presence of rare/disputed PIE phoneme */a/; a reconstruction *mh₂érkos seems untenable.

One theory which does not accept the existence of this PIE word sees the Germanic forms as a borrowing from the Celtic, and those as a loan from Proto-Iranian *márikah (compare Old Persian [script needed] (marika, male, manly)), from *máryah (compare Avestan 𐬨𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌𐬌𐬀(mairiia, man; male animal)); akin to Sanskrit मर्य (márya, young man; stallion). More at marry.

NounEdit

*márkos m

  1. horse (Equus caballus)
  2. (possibly) wild horse (Equus przewalskii or gmelini)

Usage notesEdit

Possibly denoting only a "wild horse" as opposed to the *h₁éḱwos (domestic horse).

InflectionEdit

Thematic
singular
nominative *márkos
genitive *márkosyo
singular dual plural
nominative *márkos *márkoh₁ *márkoes
vocative *márke *márkoh₁ *márkoes
accusative *márkom *márkoh₁ *márkoms
genitive *márkosyo *? *márkooHom
ablative *márkead *? *márkomos
dative *márkoey *? *márkomos
locative *márkey, *márkoy *? *márkoysu
instrumental *márkoh₁ *? *márkōys

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Celtic: *markos (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *marhaz (see there for further descendants)

ReferencesEdit