This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to sleep

Derived termsEdit

  • Unsorted formations:
    • Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
      • Slavic: *sъpati (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*gg̑ʰer¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 213-214
  3. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (1999) The noun in Biblical Armenian: origin and word-formation: with special emphasis on the Indo-European heritage (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 119), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 29
  4. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “Proto-Indo-European/swep-”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, page 8