Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/tewh₂-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

May be an extension from an older root *tew-, *tu-, whence also *tewk- and *twem-, but the relationship between these is unknown.[1]

Compare perhaps Proto-Uralic *täw- in *täwde (full) and *täwe (lung).

RootEdit

*tewh₂-

  1. to swell; to become big or fat
  2. to be numerous, crowd
  3. to be strong

ExtensionsEdit

  • *tewh₂-bʰ-
    • *téwh₂-bʰ-os ~ *tuh₂-bʰ-és-
      • Proto-Italic: *tūβos
        • Latin: tūber (see there for further descendants)
          • Latin: prōtūberō (to bulge up), extūberō (to bulge out) (see there for further descendants)
    • *túh₂-bʰ-eh₂
    • *téwh₂-bʰ-Hō ~ *tuh₂-bʰ-Hnés
      • Proto-Germanic: *þūbǭ
        • Old Norse: þúfa (mound) (see there for further descendants)
  • *tuh₂-k-, ? *tewk-
      • Proto-Italic: / Proto-Celtic: ?
        • ? Latin: tucca (see there for further descendants)
        • Umbrian: toco
    • *towh₂k-ó-s
      • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *tauˀkás
        • Proto-Slavic: *tȗkъ (fat) (see there for further descendants)
  • >? *tuh₂-m-, ? *tum-
    • *tuh₂m-on-
      • >? Proto-Germanic: *þūmô (see there for further descendants)
  • *tuh₂-r-
    • *tuh₂-r-g-

Derived termsEdit

  • *towh₂-éye-ti (causative)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *táwīˀtei
      • Proto-Slavic: *toviti (to fatten, cause to gain weight) (see there for further descendants)
  • *téwh₂-ti (athematic root present)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Proto-Slavic: *tỳti (to become fat, gain weight) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *táHuti (with laryngeal metathesis?)
  • *téwh₂-mn̥
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *táwHma
      • Proto-Iranian: *táwHma
        • Old Persian: [script needed] (tauman-, strength, power, wealth)
  • *tḗwh₂-s ~ *téwh₂-s (root noun)
    • *téwh₂s-ih₂
      • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *táwHsiH (strength, power) (see there for further descendants)
  • *tḗwh₂-ō ~ *tuh₂-nés
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *tā́wā ~ *tāwnás
      • Proto-Iranian: *tā́wā ~ *tāwnáh
        • Proto-Iranian: *hwatā́wā ~ *hwatāwnás (see there for further descendants)
  • *túh₂-lo-
    • Proto-Albanian:
      • Albanian: tul (flesh, pulp; crumb)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: tū́las (several)
      • Old Prussian: tūlan (much)
      • Proto-Slavic: *tỳlъ (occiput, nape) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Celtic:
      • Proto-Brythonic:
        • Middle Welsh: twl
          • Welsh: twl (round elevation)
    • >? Proto-Hellenic: *tū́los
    • >? Proto-Indo-Iranian: *túHlas
    • >? Proto-Italic:
      • >? Latin: tullius (gushing water, waterfall), ? Tullus, Tullius (if not Etruscan) (see there for further descendants)
  • *te-tuh₂-lo-
  • *tuh₂-mn̥-to-m or *towh₂-e-mn̥-to-m < *towh₂-éye-ti?
  • *tuh₂-ro-
  • *ti-tuh₂-o-s
    • Proto-Hellenic:
      • >? Ancient Greek: Τιτυός (Tituós) (see there for further descendants)
  • *tuh₂-to-s or *towh₂-e-to- < *towh₂-éye-ti?
    • Proto-Italic: *tōtos
      • Latin: tōtus (see there for further descendants)
  • *tweh₂- (schwebeablaut variant)
    • *tweh₂-lo- or *tuh₂-elo-?
      • Proto-Hellenic: *twálos > *tsálos
        • Ancient Greek: σάλος (sálos) (see there for further descendants)
    • *tweh₂-wo- (whole)
    • *twoh₂-ro-
      • Proto-Hellenic: *twōrós > *tsōrós
        • Ancient Greek: σωρός (sōrós) (see there for further descendants)
    • *twóh₂-mn̥
      • Proto-Hellenic: *twṓmə > *tsṓmə
        • Ancient Greek: σῶμα (sôma) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Albanian: *twana
    • Proto-Armenian:
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: tvìnti (to rise, swell)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
      • Proto-Iranian:
        • Persian: توان(tavān, power, ability)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “tumeō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 633
  2. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (1999) The noun in Biblical Armenian: origin and word-formation: with special emphasis on the Indo-European heritage (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 119), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 63