This Proto-Indo-Iranian entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-Iranian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Indo-European *swépnos.

Noun edit

*swápnas m

  1. sleep, sleeping
  2. dreaming

Declension edit

masculine a-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *swápnas *swápnā *swápnā, -ās(as)
vocative *swápna *swápnā *swápnā, -ās(as)
accusative *swápnam *swápnā *swápnāns
instrumental *swápnā *swápnaybʰyaH, -ābʰyām *swápnāyš
ablative *swápnāt *swápnaybʰyaH, -ābʰyām *swápnaybʰyas
dative *swápnāy *swápnaybʰyaH, -ābʰyām *swápnaybʰyas
genitive *swápnasya *swápnayās *swápnāna(H)m
locative *swápnay *swápnayaw *swápnayšu

Descendants edit

  • Proto-Indo-Aryan: *swápnas
  • Proto-Iranian: *hwáfnah
    • Avestan: 𐬓𐬀𐬟𐬥𐬀 (xᵛafna)
    • Gurani: وەرم (werm /⁠warm⁠/, dream, sleep)
    • Ossetian: фынын (fynyn)
    • Khotanese: [script needed] (hvana)
    • Northern Kurdish: xewn (/⁠xawn⁠/, dream)
    • Middle Persian: [script needed] (xwmn /⁠xwamn⁠/, dream, sleep)
      • Classical Persian: همن (human, dream; sleep), هومن (hawman ~ huwman ~ hōman) (only in Zoroastrian texts)
    • Parthian: [script needed] (xwmr /⁠xwamr⁠/, sleep)
    • Sivandi: فرم (färm, sleep)
    • Zazaki: hewn (/⁠hawn⁠/, dream, sleep)