This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *d-kʷəy-n (Matisoff, STEDT; Mortensen, 2012); *kwiy=*kwəy ⪤ **d-k-wiy (LaPolla, 1987); *kwiy (Chou, 1972; Weidert, 1987; Benedict, 1972); *kwəy (Chou, 1972; Weidert, 1987)

A widely attested root in Sino-Tibetan languages.

The nasal suffix -n is reconstructed solely on the basis of the Chinese comparandum "", where it is said to function as a "collective plural" suffix. This word has almost been completely replaced by (gǒu, from Old Chinese *Cə.kˁroʔ, "dog") in modern varieties, which Schuessler (2007) considers to be a substrate loanword of Hmong-Mien origin (Proto-Hmong-Mien *qluwˣ (dog)), which is in turn perhaps an Austronesian loan, cf. Proto-Austronesian *(u-)(ŋ)kuɣkuɣ (dog) (Benedict, 1996). Compare Japanese いぬ (inu, dog) (distantly possible as *iŋku (signature shift), from **i-ŋku[kuɣ] (typical reduction on the right)), and Middle Korean 가히 (gahi, dog) (Modern (gae)).

Compare Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog) (whence English hound, Latin canis, Ancient Greek κύων (kúōn), Sanskrit श्वन् (śván)), where the -n suffixed form is preserved in many modern reflexes.

Eastern Han Dynasty, a standing statue of a dog from Sichuan, China.



  1. dog


  • Old Chinese: /*kʰʷeːnʔ/ (ZS), /*kʷʰˤenʔ/ (B-S) ("dog")
    (in the oracle bone script)  
    • Middle Chinese: (/kʰwenX/)

      Japanese:  (けん, ​ken)
      Korean:  (, gyeon)
      Vietnamese: khuyển ()

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: ("dog") (quǎn, /t͡ɕʰy̯ɛn²¹⁴/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /hyːn³⁵/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /t͡ɕʰyø³⁴/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /kʰi̯en⁵¹/
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ཁྱི (khyi, dog)
    • Mahakiranti
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • Northern
      • Tangut: 𗘂 (khjwɨ), 𗃝 (kə, /*kə⁵⁵/)
    • rGyalrongic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (ke, dog)
  • Karen: *thwiᴮ (Luangthongkum, 2013)

See alsoEdit