This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Etymology 1Edit

Nominal suffix, formed by rebracketing of *-kъ, typically appended to ancient u-stems. Can also be attached to o-stems to form derivatives of the specified object/property.


*-ъkъ m

  1. Forms diminutives from old u-stem nouns
    *listъ (leaf)*listъkъ (leaflet, a small leaf)
    *synъ (son)*synъkъ (boy, little son)
    *bebrъ (beaver)*bebrъkъ (small beaver)
    *medъ (honey)*medъkъ (honey product)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of the specified property (rare)
    *pętъ (fifth)*pętъkъ (Friday)
    *četvьrtъ (fourth)*četvьrtъkъ (Thursday)
    *pǫtevъ (path-related)*pǫtъkъ (footwear, shoe for walking)
    *bělъ (white)*bělъkъ (albumen)
    *žьltъ (yellow)*žьltъkъ (yolk)
    *okrǫžьnъ (circumferential)*krǫžьkъ (circle, shape with circular form)
  3. Structural formant, without a base noun to synchronically derive from
    *pěsъkъ (sand)
  4. Deverbal from the past participle in *-tъ, forms resultant nouns of the specified action
    *dobyti (to extract)*dobytъ*dobytъkъ (stock)
    *dati (to give)*datъ*datъkъ (yield)
    *zaperti (to expire)*zapьrtъ*zapъrtъkъ (addle egg)
    *začęti (to conceive)*začętъ*začętъkъ (embryo, germ)
  5. Deverbal, forms abstract nouns of the specified action
    *pominǫti (to pass)*pominъkъ (livelihood, means to survive)
    *do (to, nearby) + *jьměti (to have)*nedojьmъkъ (poverty, lack of income)
  6. Deverbal, forms an instance of the specified action
    *kyvati (to knock, to hew)*kyvъkъ (nod)
    *telťì (to shove, to pound)*tьlčьkъ (push, impulse)
    *mazati (to anoint, to spread oil/paint)*mazъkъ (dab, smear)
    *glъtati (to swallow)*glъtъkъ (gulp)
  7. Deverbal, forms tool or agent nouns for the specified action: -er
    Synonyms: *-ьcь, *-slo
    *strěľati (to knock, to hew)*strělъkъ (shooter)
    *skrebti (to scrape)*skrebъkъ (scraper)
    *gǫděti (to buzz, to honk)*gǫdъkъ (horn, buzzer)
    *pьlzti (to craw) → dial. *pьlžьkъ (slug)
  8. From propositions, forms an instance of the specified action
    *perdъ (in front)*perdъkъ (ancestor)
    *po +‎ *tomь (later on, over there)*potomъkъ (descendant)


Etymology 2Edit

Adjectival suffix with analogical origin as the nominal suffix. Related to Proto-Germanic *-ugaz (when appended to u-stems) and Proto-Germanic *-agaz (to o-stems).

In rare case, both the original u-stem form (reanalyzed as an o-stem) and the extended *-ъkъ are attested: e.g. Old Church Slavonic крѣпъ (krěpŭ) : крѣпъкъ (krěpŭkŭ).



  1. From nouns or adverbs, forms adjectives with pertaining meaning: -y
    *kortъ (piece, bit)*kortъkъ (short)
    *nizъ (down, below)*nizъkъ (nether, low)
    *slizъ (slime)*slizъkъ (slippery)
    *goře(stь) (sorrow, woe, tribulation)*gorьkъ (bitter)
    *tęžе(stь) (weight)*tęžьkъ (heavy)
  2. Deverbial from the past participle, forms adjectives which approximate the meaning of the participle: -ly (rare)
    *plyti (to float)*plytъ (sunk)*plytъkъ (shallow)
    *pry(g)ti (to spring, to jump)*prytъ (sprung)*prytъkъ (agile, nimble)
    *viti (to curve, to wind)*vitъ (curved)*vitъkъ (curvу, twisty)
    *biti (to beat, to fight)*bitъ (beaten)*bitъkъ (feisty, military)
  3. (Extension) From former u-stem adjective (some of them surviving as re-analyzed o-stems), forms their doublets
    *gladъ*gladъkъ (smooth, plain)
    *dьrzъ*dьrzъkъ (daring, bald)
    *krěpъ*krěpъkъ (solid, firm)
    *krěxъ*krěxъkъ (soft, mild)
    **lьgъ*lьgъkъ (light)
    **mělъ*mělъkъ (small, finely ground)
    **tьnъ*tьnъkъ (thin)

Alternative formsEdit

  • *-ьkъ (when attached to yu-stems or spread from the ancient comparative in *-jьš-)


Derived termsEdit


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -ъкъ (-ŭkŭ)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: -ek
    • Kashubian: -k
    • Polish: -ek
    • Slovak: -ok
    • Slovincian: -k
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: -k
      • Lower Sorbian: -k


  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Halla-aho, Jussi (2006) Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology: On the Basis of Old Church Slavic (Slavica Helsingiensia; 26)‎[2], Helsinki: University of Helsinki, page 100