Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/-jь

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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-SlavicEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Continues[1] Proto-Indo-European *-yós and partially the marginal elative[2] Caland suffix Proto-Indo-European *-yos ~ *-is. In some cases, e.g. Proto-Slavic *siňь, the jo-stem may have spread from the comparative *-jьš-.

Over time, some yo-stem adjectives were fossilized into nouns and some kinetic i-stems were leveled out into jo-stems, giving rise to Slavic jo-stem nouns. Another source of jo-stem nouns is from Illič-Svityč's law , which transformed neutral ap B nouns (including jo-stems) into masculine.

Cognate with Lithuanian -ỹs (under stress), Lithuanian -ias/-jas (elsewhere), Latvian -̧s, -̧š.

Suffix 1Edit

*-jь

  1. Adjectival inherited from the Caland roots, usually with exceptional or magnifying meaning:
    *dobľь (honest)
    *ryďь (ruddy, ginger)
    *siňь (glaucos blue/gray)
  2. Adjectival of secondary origin, attached to o-grade roots:
    *lošь (bad)
    *dužь (strong)
    *bujь (aggressive, fierce)
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: (-i)
      • Old Ruthenian: (-i), (-j)
        • Belarusian: (-j)
        • Ukrainian: (-j)
    • Russian: (-j)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: (-i)
    • Bulgarian: -ʲ(0/a/e) (with palatalization of the preceding phoneme)
    • Macedonian:
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Latin: -i
      Cyrillic:
    • Slovene:
  • West Slavic:

Suffix 2Edit

*-jь m

  1. Nominal inherited from Proto-Balto-Slavic, e.g.:
    *mǫžь (man)
    *moľь (moth)
    *koňь (horse)
    *ǫ̃žь (snake) (from a leveled PIE proterokinetic i-stem)
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
  • *-ь (i-stem)
  • *-ьjь
    • *-ьje n (noun-forming, usually denoting manner or location as well as the standard ending for deverbial action nouns)
    • *-ьja m (noun-forming, denoting collectiveness)

Etymology 2Edit

From verbal stems inflecting (explicitly or implicitly) with Proto-Slavic *-jeti + *-ъ.

Cognate with Lithuanian -ỹs.[3]

SuffixEdit

*-jь m

  1. Deverbal from root-emphatic verbs inflecting in original Proto-Slavic *-jeti, creates agent/instrument nouns:
    *kyjь (hammer)*kuti (to hew)
    *pьňь (stump)*pęti (to stretch)
  2. Deverbal from causative/iterative verbs inflecting in Proto-Slavic *-iti, creates agent/instrument nouns:
    *voďь (leader)*voditi (to lead)
    *lučь (ray)*lučiti (to pinpoint, to target)
    *nožь (knife)*nožiti (to skewer)
    *gojь (fest, abundance)*gojiti (to feed)
  3. Deverbal from stative/essive verbs inflecting in *-ěti/*-jati, yielding Proto-Slavic *-ějь.
  4. Deverbal from factive verbs inflecting in *-ati, yielding Proto-Slavic *-ajь.
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-yos (belonging to).

SuffixEdit

*-jь m

  1. Pronomial ending, attached to o-grade root, forming possesive pronouns:
    *mojь (mine)*mi (me) (dative)
    *tvojь (ray)*ti (thee) (dative)
    *svojь (own)*si (self) (dative)
    *našь (our)*nas (ours) (genetive)
    *vašь (your)*vas (yours) (genetive)

See alsoEdit

  • *jь (relative particle)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 62
  2. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[2], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 64
  3. ^ Otrębski, Jan (1964), “Славяно-балтийское языковое единство. II. Морфологические явления”, in Вопросы языкознания, issue 6, Москва: Издательство Академии наук СССР, page 28