This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Continues[1] Proto-Indo-European *-yós and partially the marginal elative[2] Caland suffix Proto-Indo-European *-yos ~ *-is. In some cases, e.g. Proto-Slavic *siňь, the jo-stem may have spread from the comparative *-jьš-.

Over time, some yo-stem adjectives were fossilized into nouns and some kinetic i-stems were leveled out into jo-stems, giving rise to Slavic jo-stem nouns. Another source of jo-stem nouns is from Illič-Svityč's law , which transformed neutral ap B nouns (including jo-stems) into masculine.

Cognate with Lithuanian -ỹs (under stress), Lithuanian -ias/-jas (elsewhere), Latvian -̧s, -̧š.

Suffix 1Edit


  1. Adjectival inherited from the Caland roots, usually with exceptional or magnifying meaning:
    *dobľь (honest)
    *ryďь (ruddy, ginger)
    *siňь (glaucos blue/gray)
  2. Adjectival of secondary origin, attached to o-grade roots:
    *lošь (bad)
    *dužь (strong)
    *bujь (aggressive, fierce)
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: (-i)
      • Old Ruthenian: (-i), (-j)
        • Belarusian: (-j)
        • Ukrainian: (-j)
    • Russian: (-j)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: (-i)
    • Bulgarian: -ʲ(0/a/e) (with palatalization of the preceding phoneme)
    • Macedonian:
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Latin: -i
    • Slovene:
  • West Slavic:

Suffix 2Edit

*-jь m

  1. Nominal inherited from Proto-Balto-Slavic, e.g.:
    *mǫžь (man)
    *moľь (moth)
    *koňь (horse)
    *ǫ̃žь (snake) (from a leveled PIE proterokinetic i-stem)
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
  • *-ь (i-stem)
  • *-ьjь
    • *-ьje n (noun-forming, usually denoting manner or location as well as the standard ending for deverbial action nouns)
    • *-ьja m (noun-forming, denoting collectiveness)

Etymology 2Edit

From verbal stems inflecting (explicitly or implicitly) with Proto-Slavic *-jeti + *-ъ.

Cognate with Lithuanian -ỹs.[3]


*-jь m

  1. Deverbal from root-emphatic verbs inflecting in original Proto-Slavic *-jeti, creates agent/instrument nouns:
    *kyjь (hammer)*kuti (to hew)
    *pьňь (stump)*pęti (to stretch)
  2. Deverbal from causative/iterative verbs inflecting in Proto-Slavic *-iti, creates agent/instrument nouns:
    *voďь (leader)*voditi (to lead)
    *lučь (ray)*lučiti (to pinpoint, to target)
    *nožь (knife)*nožiti (to skewer)
    *gojь (fest, abundance)*gojiti (to feed)
  3. Deverbal from stative/essive verbs inflecting in *-ěti/*-jati, yielding Proto-Slavic *-ějь.
  4. Deverbal from factive verbs inflecting in *-ati, yielding Proto-Slavic *-ajь.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-yos (belonging to).


*-jь m

  1. Pronomial ending, attached to o-grade root, forming possesive pronouns:
    *mojь (mine)*mi (me) (dative)
    *tvojь (ray)*ti (thee) (dative)
    *svojь (own)*si (self) (dative)
    *našь (our)*nas (ours) (genetive)
    *vašь (your)*vas (yours) (genetive)

See alsoEdit

  • *jь (relative particle)


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 62
  2. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[2], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 64
  3. ^ Otrębski, Jan (1964), “Славяно-балтийское языковое единство. II. Морфологические явления”, in Вопросы языкознания, issue 6, Москва: Издательство Академии наук СССР, page 28