This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic edit

Etymology edit

Originally third-person singular aorist of *byti.

Conjuction edit


  1. Introduces a clause of aim; to, so that, in order to
  2. Introduces a clarifying clause; to

Descendants edit

  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: бꙑ (by)
      • Old Ruthenian: бы (by)
        • Ukrainian: (dialectal) би (by)
      • Russian: бы (by)
    • Old Novgorodian: бꙑ (by)
  • South Slavic:
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Latin script: bi
      Cyrillic script: би
    • Slovene: bi
  • West Slavic:
    • Kashubian:
    • Old Czech: by
    • Old Polish: by
      • Polish: by
      • Silesian: by
    • Slovak: (poetic) by
    • Sorbian:
      • Lower Sorbian: by
      • Upper Sorbian: by

References edit

  1. ^ Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974), “by”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volume 1 (a – bьzděti), Wrocław: Ossolineum, page 471

Further reading edit

  • Boryś, Wiesław (2005), “by”, in Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego (in Polish), Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, →ISBN, page 48
  • Králik, Ľubor (2016), “by”, in Stručný etymologický slovník slovenčiny [Concise Etymological Dictionary of Slovak] (in Slovak), Bratislava: VEDA; JÚĽŠ SAV, →ISBN, page 89
  • Snoj, Marko (2016), “bi”, in Slovenski etimološki slovar [Slovenian Etymology Dictionary] (in Slovene), 3rd edition,