IPA(key): /fʁi.pa/

This template uses Module:fr-pron to generate the IPA pronunciation of French words or text. If no parameter is provided, it will use the page title. Normally the text should be the standard written form of the text.


Many tricky cases are handled correctly.

Text Result Comments
intransitives IPA(key): /ɛ̃.tʁɑ̃.zi.tiv/
château IPA(key): /ʃɑ.to/
accueil IPA(key): /a.kœj/
plomb IPA(key): /plɔ̃/
prudemment IPA(key): /pʁy.da.mɑ̃/
mangeait IPA(key): /mɑ̃.ʒɛ/
baignoire IPA(key): /bɛ.ɲwaʁ/
étudiions IPA(key): /e.ty.di.jɔ̃/
joindre IPA(key): /ʒwɛ̃dʁ/
shopping IPA(key): /ʃɔ.piŋ/
tînmes IPA(key): /tɛ̃m/
Cameroun IPA(key): /kam.ʁun/ -oun is not a nasal vowel
prier IPA(key): /pʁi.je/ i before a vowel after Cl and Cr is /ij/ not /j/
truelle IPA(key): /tʁy.ɛl/ u before a vowel after Cl and Cr is /y/ not /ɥ/
bruit IPA(key): /bʁɥi/ but ui is always /ɥi/
troua IPA(key): /tʁu.a/ ou before a vowel after Cl and Cr is /u/ not /w/
trois IPA(key): /tʁwa/ but oi is always /wa/
dresser IPA(key): /dʁɛ.se/ e before ss is usually /ɛ/
essaim IPA(key): /e.sɛ̃/ but initial e before ss is /e/
ressemelez IPA(key): /ʁə.sə.m(ə).le/ and initial ress- is /rəs/
vous ressemelez IPA(key): /vu ʁ(ə).sə.m(ə).le/ note the schwa handling in this and the previous example
aimerons IPA(key): /ɛm.ʁɔ̃/
aimerions IPA(key): /ɛ.mə.ʁjɔ̃/ note the schwa handling in this and the previous example
ouest IPA(key): /wɛst/ final -st is pronounced by default
il est IPA(key): /il ɛ/ but est, es and et are special-cased

But in some cases it is necessary to use respelling to indicate the correct pronunciation. Example:

Text Result Respelling Result Comments
hiver IPA(key): /i.ve/ hiverre IPA(key): /i.vɛʁ/ -r in final -er not pronounced by default
fils IPA(key): /fil/ fisse IPA(key): /fis/ another possibility is fiç
soixante IPA(key): /swak.sɑ̃t/ soissante IPA(key): /swa.sɑ̃t/ another possibility is soiçante
août IPA(key): /a.u/ oute IPA(key): /ut/
mille IPA(key): /mij/ mile IPA(key): /mil/ -ill after a consonant is pronounced by default like fille
caoutchouc IPA(key): /ka.ut.ʃuk/ caoutchou IPA(key): /ka.ut.ʃu/ final -c after a vowel is pronounced by default
suspect IPA(key): /sys.pɛkt/ suspet IPA(key): /sys.pɛ/ final -ct after a vowel is pronounced by default
chaos IPA(key): /ʃa.o/ caos IPA(key): /ka.o/
donc IPA(key): /dɔ̃/ donque IPA(key): /dɔ̃k/ final -c in -nc is not pronounced by default
parfum IPA(key): /paʁ.fɔm/ parfun IPA(key): /paʁ.fœ̃/ final -um pronounced by default like maximum
shampooing IPA(key): /ʃɑ̃.pɔ.wɛ̃/ shampoing IPA(key): /ʃɑ̃.pwɛ̃/
œufs IPA(key): /œf/ œux IPA(key): /ø/
Vientiane IPA(key): /vjɑ̃.tjan/ Viaintiane IPA(key): /vjɛ̃.tjan/
cowboy IPA(key): /kɔw.bwaj/ cauboille IPA(key): /ko.bɔj/ English loanwords usually require respelling
boycotter IPA(key): /bwaj.kɔ.te/ boillcotter IPA(key): /bɔj.kɔ.te/ note that -ill- can be used even before a consonant

Use |pos=v to indicate that a word is a verb. This currently only affects final -ai, -ent, and -tions.

Text Result without pos=v Result with pos=v Comments
aimerai IPA(key): /ɛm.ʁɛ/ IPA(key): /ɛm.ʁe/
aiment IPA(key): /ɛ.mɑ̃/ IPA(key): /ɛm/
portions IPA(key): /pɔʁ.sjɔ̃/ IPA(key): /pɔʁ.tjɔ̃/

Use the symbols ŏ, , ă to force the "lax" sounds /ɔ/ /œ/ /a/ in certain circumstances where the "tense" variants /o/ /ø/ /ɑ/ would otherwise be used (see below). These are the opposite of the standard symbols ô, , â, which force the "tense" variants.

Text Result Respelling Result Comments
sosie IPA(key): /so.zi/ sŏsie IPA(key): /sɔ.zi/ o is /o/ before /z/
putter (respelled "peuter") IPA(key): /pø.te/ peŭter IPA(key): /pœ.te/ eu is /ø/ word-initially and before /t/
aimas IPA(key): /ɛ.mɑ/ aimăs IPA(key): /ɛ.ma/ a is /ɑ/ before final written s, z

Schwas of various sorts:

  • Use ə (a schwa symbol) to force a normal schwa where e would otherwise be interpreted differently (e.g. in -ess-; but note that ress- /rəs/ is special-cased). This may be indicated as mandatory, optional or deleted depending on context, exactly like any other schwa.
  • Use (ə) (a schwa in parens) to force an optional schwa.
  • Use ĕ to force an always-pronounced schwa.
  • Use ė to force a never-pronounced schwa.
Text Result Respelling Result Comments
dessous IPA(key): /dɛ.su/ dəssous IPA(key): /də.su/ another possibility is the respelling deçous
sens dessus dessous IPA(key): /sɑ̃ dɛ.sy dɛ.su/ sens dəssus dəssous IPA(key): /sɑ̃ d(ə).sy d(ə).su/ shown here as optional, just as normal e would
syndrome d'Asperger IPA(key): /sɛ̃.dʁɔm d‿as.pɛʁ.ʒe/ syndrome d'Aspergĕr IPA(key): /sɛ̃.dʁɔm d‿as.pɛʁ.ʒəʁ/ regular ə would also work here

Use an underscore to break up a set of letters that would be interpreted specially and force the letters on either side to be interpreted on their own. Examples:

Text Result Respelling Result Comments
gnou IPA(key): /ɲu/ g_nou IPA(key): /ɡnu/
week-end IPA(key): /wə.ɛ.kɑ̃/ wik-e_nde IPA(key): /wi.kɛnd/ use an underscore between vowel and n to force the n to be fully pronounced
sprinter IPA(key): /spʁɛ̃.te/ spri_nter IPA(key): /spʁin.te/ another possibility is the respelling sprineter or sprinėter
amuïr IPA(key): /a.mɥiʁ/ amu_ir IPA(key): /a.my.iʁ/
Washington IPA(key): /wa.ʃɛ̃.tɔ̃/ Washing_tonne IPA(key): /wa.ʃiŋ.tɔn/ -ing after consonant is /iŋ/ if final or followed by an underscore

Use the symbol ‿ to indicate liaison.

Text Result Respelling Result
vous avez IPA(key): /vu a.ve/ vous‿avez IPA(key): /vu.z‿a.ve/
s'en aller IPA(key): /s‿ɑ̃ a.le/ s'en‿aller IPA(key): /s‿ɑ̃.n‿a.le/
bon ami IPA(key): /bɔ̃ a.mi/ bon‿ami IPA(key): /bɔ.n‿a.mi/
pied-à-terre IPA(key): /pje.a.tɛʁ/ pied‿à-terre IPA(key): /pje.t‿a.tɛʁ/
premier étage IPA(key): /pʁə.mje e.taʒ/ premier‿étage IPA(key): /pʁə.mjɛ.ʁ‿e.taʒ/
peut-être IPA(key): /pø.ɛtʁ/ peut‿être IPA(key): /pø.t‿ɛtʁ/
neuf ans IPA(key): /nœf ɑ̃/ neuf‿ans IPA(key): /nœ.v‿ɑ̃/
beaux-arts IPA(key): /bo.aʁ/ beaux‿arts IPA(key): /bo.z‿aʁ/
jouent-ils, pos=v IPA(key): /ʒu.il/ jouent‿ils, pos=v IPA(key): /ʒu.t‿il/

Many more examples can be found in Module:fr-pron/testcases.


|1=, |2=, etc. are used to indicate one or more pronunciations, possibly respelled. See examples above for how this respelling works. An omitted parameter defaults to the pagename. You can indicate multiple pronunciations, e.g.

  • {{fr-IPA|phrâser|phraser}}: IPA(key): /fʁɑ.ze/, /fʁa.ze/

|pos=v indicates that a word in the text is a verb, and controls the handling of certain endings (-ai, -ent, -tions); see examples above.

You can tag any pronunciation with a qualifier using |qual=, |qual2=, etc. and a reference using |n=, |n2=, etc., as with {{IPA}}.



  • b is normally /b/, but:
    • It is silent in final -mb(s).
    • It is /p/ in the sequence bs (obstacle).
  • c is normally /k/, but:
    • It is /s/ before a front vowel, i.e. e, i, y, æ, ə or accented versions of these; also œ (cœliaque), except in the sequence œu (cœur with /k/). To get a hard c before a front vowel, write k or qu; to get a soft c before a back vowel, write ç.
    • ch is /ʃ/.
    • c is silent in final nc(t)(s).
  • ç is always /s/.
  • d is /d/, but:
  • It is silent in final -d and -ds. -ied(s) is /je/ (pied, assieds, etc.).
  • f is always /f/.
  • g is normally /ɡ/ (note, this is a special IPA character, not the normal g character), except:
    • g is /ʒ/ before a front vowel, i.e. e, i, y, æ, ə or accented versions of these; also œ, except in the sequence œu (Argœuves with /ɡ/). To get a hard g before a front vowel, write gu; to get a soft g before a back vowel, write j; to get a pronounced gu before a front vowel, write .
    • gn is /ɲ/. To get /ɡn/, write g_n.
    • ng is /ŋ/ (as in parking, shopping) in the sequence consonant+ing when word-finally, before final s, or before _. Use _ to get ing -> /iŋ/ elsewhere in a word, e.g. respell Washington as Washing_tonne and swinguer as swing_guer. Note that vowel+ing (as in poing) is interpreted by the next rule.
    • Final g(s) is silent, as in rang, long, seing, joug and plurals.
    • g is silent in the sequence ngt, as in vingt.
  • h is normally silent. Note:
    • ch, sh, sch, ssh are /ʃ/, except that initial désh- is /dez/ (déshonorer, déshabitué).
    • ph is /f/.
    • h between vowels prevents conversion of /i/ and /y/ into glides (as in nihilisme, jihad respelled djihade), but does not have a similar effect on /u/ (hence souhaite is rendered as /swɛt/).
    • nh is treated as if spelled n (as in inhérent, anhédonie), except in word-initial enh-, rendered as /ɑ̃/ (as in enhardir, enhaché, enhucher). For words where the h is "mute" and the enh- needs to be rendered as /ɑ̃n/ (enharmonie, enherber), use a respelling beginning with enn-.
    • Word-initial eu- is normally rendered as /ø/, but word-initial h blocks this, hence euro is /ø.ro/ but heureux is /œ.rø/.
  • j is always /ʒ/.
  • k is always /k/.
  • l is /l/, except:
    • ill is /j/ after a vowel (faillir), /ij/ after a consonant fille, and /il/ word-initially illustrer. This applies regardless of what follows, which is useful in respellings (e.g. boycotter can be respelled boillcotter to get /bɔj.kɔ.te/). An exception is the sequence uill following a consonant, which is rendered /ɥij/ (as in juillet, cuillère) rather than expected */yj/. Note that many words having ill after a consonant are pronounced with /il/ rather than /ij/ (mille, village, tranquillité), and will need respelling using il.
    • The sequence oil is /wal/ (poil), unless another l follows (to allow respellings like cauboille /ko.bɔj/ for cowboy).
    • Otherwise, word-final il(s) is /j/ after a vowel (travail, orteil), /il/ otherwise (ils, avril, profil).
    • In the sequence vowel+il+consonant, il is rendered as /j/; this is an alternative way to get /j/ in respellings.
    • Special cases:
      • œil (œil, œillet) is interpreted as if spelled œuil.
      • cueil (accueil) is interpreted as if spelled keuil.
      • gueil (orgueil) is interpreted as if spelled gueuil.
      • oel, oêl (moelle, poêle) are interpreted as if spelled wal.
  • m is /m/, except that it normally indicates nasalization when preceding b, p, or f (tomber, imprimer, symphonie), and also in the word-final sequences om(s), aim(s), eim(s) (faim, Reims, nom). Exceptions and special cases:
    • The sequence oum represents /um/ (schtroumpf), not a nasal vowel.
    • Word-final um(s) represents /ɔm/ (maximum, album).
  • n is normally /n/, but usually indicates nasalization when following a vowel and not preceding a vowel or another n. Exceptions and special cases:
    • The sequence oun represents /un/ (Cameroun, Bouroundi), not a nasal vowel.
    • Word-final ing(s) after a consonant represents /iŋ/ (parking, shopping). See the entry for g above for the precise rules.
    • nh is rendered as /n/ except in word-initial enh-. See the entry for h above for the precise rules.
  • p is /p/, except:
  • q and qu are always /k/. To represent a pronounced u, use ü if pronounced /ɥ/ (as in aquifère, ubiquité), and w if pronounced /w/ (as in adéquat, équanimité, squatter).
  • r is /ʁ/, but is silent in final -er(s), which is rendered /e/ (aimer, volontiers, dîners, papiers). Exception: -er(s) in single-syllable words (cher, vers) is rendered /ɛʁ/. Words with pronounced final -er(s) in multisyllabic words will need respelling with -erre, e.g. travers, tiers.
  • s is normally /s/, but:
    • It is /z/ between vowels and silent word-finally.
    • Words where s between vowels is /s/ (asocial, susurrer) will need respelling with ç, ss or (if before a front vowel) c. (Be careful with respelling using ss, as it may change the interpretation of a preceding e.)
    • Words where final s is pronounced (ours, métis, sens) will need respelling (e.g. ourse/ource/ourss/ourç/etc., métisse, sense).
    • sh, sch, ssh are /ʃ/, except that initial désh- is /dez/ (déshonorer, déshabitué).
    • In initial trans- and intrans- preceding a vowel, s is /z/.
    • The words es and est are rendered as if spelled ès and èt, respectively (i.e. they will be rendered as /ɛ/ except in a liaison context).
    • Except in the word est, final -st is pronounced (ouest, podcast, permafrost).
  • t is normally /t/, but:
  • v is always /v/.
  • w is always /w/.
  • x is normally /ks/, but:
  • z is normally /z/, but:
    • Final z is silent (allez, nez). [FIXME: Should only apply to -ez.] Final -ez is rendered as /e/.


  • a is /a/, except that it is /ɑ/ before final -s and -z.
  • (continue to fill in)