User:KaraWSR/Japanese Korean Cognates

This is a list of possible cognates between Korean and Japanese, words that exist in both languages that may descend from a common ancestor. [1]

Japanese word Korean Word Meaning Middle Korean Notes
(さぎ) (sagi) (sae) Heron(J) / Bird(K) 새〯 (sǎy) Japanese sagi is used as a suffix in many other bird names (see kasasagi ("magpie"))
(とり) (tori) (dak) Bird(J) / Chicken(K) ᄃᆞᆰ (tòlk) possibly related to Mongolian тахиа (taxia) , Khitan 𘰺𘯛𘯺 (t.qo.a) and Proto-Turkic *tiakïgu
(とき) (toki) 따오기 (ttaogi) Ibis 다와기〮 (tàwàkí) Spontaneous gemination of the initial consonant is a recurrent phenomenon in Modern Korean, motivated by sound-symbolic effects.
(かささぎ) (kasasagi) 까치 (kkachi) Magpie 가〯치〮 (kǎchí) Spontaneous gemination of the initial consonant is a recurrent phenomenon in Modern Korean. In kasasagi, kasa likely comes from 가〯치〮, and sagi as an identifier for birds.
(くま) (kuma) (gom) Bear 곰〯 (kwǒm) from earlier 고마〮 (Yale: *kwòmá), which survived into Middle Korean in the place name 고마〮ᄂᆞᄅᆞ (Yale: Kwòmánòlò)
(ねこ) (neko) 고양이 (goyang'i) Cat 괴〯 (kwǒy) The initial syllable of Old Japanese nekwo is onomatopoeic (nya ‘meow’). 괴〯 is likely from < *ko + -이 (diminutive animal suffix)
(はたけ) (hatake) (bat) Cropfield (pǎth) Old Japanese patakwo ‘farmer’ points to pata as ‘field,’ which shows that patake is almost certainly pata + some morpheme *ke (a suffix that is difficult to identify).
() (hi) (bul) Fire (pul) From Proto-Japonic *poy. Apophonic form of ho (see below), possibly by fusion with emphatic particle (i). Compare the development of (ko → kwi → ki, tree).
() (hi) (hae) Sun ᄒᆡ〮 (hóy)
() (tatsu) 돋다 (dotda) Stand(J) / Rise(K) 돋다 (twot.ta)
日立(ひたち) (hitachi) 해돋이 (haedoji) Sunrise ᄒᆡ〮돋이 (hóy-twòtí)
(あさ) (asa) 아침 (achim) Morning 아ᄎᆞᆷ〮 (àchóm) asa could be a later Koreanic borrowing into Japanese, as Vovin identifies 夙めて (tsutomete) as the native Japonic root for "morning" (Vovin 2010, p. 224).
朝日(あさひ) (asahi) 아침해 (achimhae) Morning Sun 아ᄎᆞᆷ〮ᄒᆡ〮 (àchóm-hóy)
(かに) (kani) (ge) Crab 게〯 (kěy) Middle Korean rising pitch implies an earlier bisyllabic form. Consider also Northwestern Korean 궝이 (gwong'i, crab) and Jeju 깅이 (ging'i, crab).
(へび) (hebi) (baem) Snake ᄇᆡ얌 (poyyam) hebi from Old Japanese ⟨pe2mi1
(しま) (shima) (seom) Island 셤〯 (syěm) Compare with Baekje 斯麻 (*syema, island).
(だま) (damaru) 다물다 (damulda) Shut up 다믈다 (tamulta).
(むら) (mura) () (mure) 무리 (muri) Group (mwul)
(つる) (tsuru) 두루미 (durumi) Crane 두〮루〮미〮 (twúlwúmí)
(くさ) (kusa) (kkot) Grass(J) / Flower(K) (kwòc) From perhaps Proto-Koreanic *kwoco to explain the unusual low pitch on a monosyllabic noun
(かま) (kama) 가마 (gama) Cauldron 가마 (kama)
()りる (oriru) 내리다 (naerida) Go down ᄂᆞ리〮다〮 (nòlí-tá)
()まる (tamaru) 담다 (damda) Store 담〯다〮 (tǎm-tá).
(あさ) (asa) (sam) Hemp 삼〮 (sám).
(うり) (uri) 오이 (oi) Melon 외〯 (wǒy)
(いも) (imo) (ma) Yam 맣〮 (máh)
早稲(わせ) (wase) (ssal) Early Harvest(J) / Rice(K) ᄡᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: psól). p- is still preserved in many compounds where 쌀 is the second element, such as 멥쌀 (mepssal) and 찹쌀 (chapssal).
(しとぎ) (shitogi) (tteok) Sacrificial Cake(J) / Rice Cake(K) ᄯᅥᆨ〮 (sték)
海神(わたつみ) (watatsumi) 바다 (bada) God of the Sea(J) / Sea(K) 바닿〮 (pàtáh) Pre-Middle Korean *바닥〮 (Yale: *pàták), The */-k/ may be the remnant of an archaic place suffix, which leaves *바다〮 (Yale: *pàtá) as the etymological root. Modern japanese umi likely comes from 御水 (omizu)
(した) (shita) (ttang) Down(J) / Earth(K) ᄯᅡᇂ〮 (stáh) From pre-Middle Korean *s(ò)ták. The modern form, first attested in the seventeenth century, is not directly descended from Seoul Middle Korean but from an unattested dialectal form in which the final velar was nasalized to *s(ò)táng.
(ぬま) (numa) (neup) Swamp (nwup)
(つき) (tsuki) (dal) Moon ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (tól) Fom Old Korean 月羅理 (Yale: *TOlal-i, where the -i is believed to be the nominative marker).
如月(きさらぎ) (kisaragi) 겨울 (gyeoul) February(J) / Winter(K) 겨ᅀᅳᆶ〮 (kyèzúlh).
(はり) (hari) 바늘 (baneul) Needle 바ᄂᆞᆯ〮 (pànól).
(みず) (mizu) (mul) Water 믈〮 (múl),
(ふね) (fune) (bae) Boat ᄇᆡ〮 (póy).
(てら) (tera) (jeol) Temple 뎔〮 (tyél).
() (iu) (ip) Say(J) / Mouth(K) (ip)
(まぶ)しい (mabushī) 눈부시다 (nunbusida) Bright ᄇᆞᅀᆡ〮다〮 (pòzóy-tá)
蜘蛛(くも) (kumo) 거미 (geomi) Spider 거믜〮 (kèmúy)
(なた) (nata) (nat) Hatchet(J) / Scythe(K) 낟〮 (nát)
(きみ) (kimi) 임금 (imgeum) Lord(J) / King(K) 님〯금〮 (nǐmkwúm)
(かみ) (kami) (geom) Deity (geom) The long vowel which implies an Old Korean bisyllabic form (hence likely *kemV).
河豚(ふぐ) (fugu) (bok) Pufferfish (pwòk).
(うま) (uma) (mal) Horse 말〯 (mǎl)
(はこ) (hako) 바구니 (baguni) Box(J) / Basket(K) 바고니〮 (pàkwòní)
(くち) (kuchi) 굿 (gut) Mouth(J) / Cavity(K) (kwut) Possibly an ancient borrowing from Old Chinese (OC *kʰluːd, “hole; cave”).
(たけ) (take) (dae) Bamboo(J) / Stalk(K) 대〮 (Ytáy)
(くば) (kubaru) 고맙다 (gomapda) Distribute(J) / Thankful(K) 고〯마〮 (kwŏmá)
() (mi) (mom) Body 몸〮 (mwóm) Proto-Japonic *muy
() (umu) (um) Birthe(J) / Bud(K) (wum)
(むす) (musubu) 묶다 (mukda) Tie up 무ᇧ다〮 (mwùsk-tá)
() (ō) 업다 (eopda) Carry on back 업다〮 (èptá)
(なれ) (nare) (neo) You ()
(はら) (hara) (beol) Field ᄇᆞᆯ〮 (pól)
(すす) (susu) (sut) Soot(J) / Charcoal(K) 수ᇧ (swusk)
(ひし) (hishi) (ssi) Water Caltrop(J) / Seed(K) ᄡᅵ〮 (psí)