Open main menu
en This user is a native speaker of English.
ja この利用者は日本語母語 としています。
es-2 Este usuario puede contribuir con un nivel intermedio de español.
qu-2 Kay ruraqqa runasimita taksalla yachaywanmi riman.
Search user languages or scripts



For the purposes of this page and the entries I am working on, "Quechua" primarily refers to Southern Quechua. There is substantial overlap between varieties, but pronunciation, meanings, and grammar might differ to the point of making them mutually unintelligible. In a way, "Quechua" (or "Runasimi") as described by Wiktionary and its corresponding Wikipedia at this time is probably closer to a literary/internet standard or dachsprache than an accurate representation of any single variety of Quechua.

Quechuan LanguagesEdit


Regional Spellings

Keep in mind that orthography is based on, but not equal to, spoken language. This is true for written Quechua, the pronunciation of which will differ depending on the region; however, a given region's pronunciation will generally follow recognizable patterns.

  • 3 vowels (A I U): Standardized three-vowel writing system used in official capacity in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. New entries will follow the conventions O→U and E→I. There is a rationale here for those interested.
  • /h/ (H): The sound /h/ is represented as "H". This is notably different from some Bolivian sources, which use "J" as in Spanish and Aymara. For example, halay/jalay "to fly" is borrowed from the Aymara jalaña.
  • Suffixes as defined here. Alternate renderings listed below should be avoided, although students may find them helpful for learning regional pronunciations.
    • -CHIK: "Plural" marker. Also seen as -chis, -chiq.
    • -CHKA: Progressive aspect marker. Also seen as -shka, -ska, -sha, -sya, -sa, -yka, ya.
    • -M: First-hand evidential. Also seen as -n. The post-vowel form -M is preferred for its similarity to the post-consonant form -MI, and because it differentiates the evidential from the third-person marker -n.
      When editing texts, -n is left as -(n) if I'm not sure whether -n or -m is to be used.
    • -P: Genitive marker. Also seen as -q and -h. Like -m above, -P is preferred for similarity to -PA and differentiation from the agentive -q.
      If the function of a -q in a text is ambiguous, keep in mind that the genitive -p/pa typically falls on nouns, and the agentive -q on verbs.
    • -PTI: If/When; Subordinator. Also seen as -qti, -hti.


There are, I believe, two schools of thought on standardizing the spelling of Quechua (specifically the representation of consonants such as K, KH, and K'). I admit I have not been consistent in following one or the other. Given a growing amount of Quechua literature, perhaps one accepted spelling will eventually emerge. It is equally likely that divergent but equally accepted spellings will find widespread use, as is already the case between "Kichwa" in Ecuador and "Qhichwa" in Peru and Bolivia. The two competing thought processes are:

  1. Spelling should prioritize the three-consonant system in all cases.
    • This school would support writing rikch'ay "to seem," despite the fact that there is no separate definition for rikchay.
    (Speakers that don't make this distinction would need to memorize such spellings.)
  2. Spelling should prioritize the simplest possible form.
    • This school would support writing rikchay, since there is no difference in meaning between rikch'ay and rikchay.
    (Speakers that make this distinction would need to learn when to pronounce the same letter differently.)

That said, English has similar discrepancies (e.g. color and colour); American and British English speakers use their own spellings but have no problem understanding the alternative spelling. It wouldn't be unreasonable to assume that Quechua speakers may write rikchay or rikch'ay depending on their dialect, but have no trouble interpreting the alternative spelling. This is only a problem when creating entries on Wiktionary, because one spelling will ultimately take precedence over the other (color is considered an alternative spelling of colour).


Parts of Speech
Quechua is incredibly flexible in the function of words. Verbs can be declined like nouns; adjectives and adverbs can be formed from nouns and verbs; context and endings can change the implied part of speech; a lexicalized root-suffix combination may itself take (sometimes seemingly redundant) suffixes. For many reasons, it is impossible (or possible but tedious) to convey in one dictionary entry the myriad ways in which a word can be used; similar is the case of creating entries for every conceivable variation.

Although Wiktionary entries may be instructive, ultimately the function of a given word with its suffixes will probably be better determined by a combination of its general sense and context. My main advice for learners is to recognize what parts of speech certain suffixes are attached to. For example, the accusative -(k)ta is attached to nouns. Verbs that take this suffix are basically functioning as nouns, even if no "official" noun form is found in a dictionary.

The conjugation/declension tables are functional enough to be included in pages, but are not complete. These are some issues that need to be addressed:

  • Being an agglutinative language, there's almost no limit to how many derivative forms can be included.
  • Few lists of nominal cases agree on just how many there are or what constitutes one.
  • Current tables mostly ignore forms containing multiple suffixes.

I appreciate any feedback you might on creating/organizing Quechua entries. More importantly, if you have any questions about the language, please feel free to ask! I may not be an expert, but I would love to help spread knowledge of both the history and grammar of this beautiful and remarkably versatile language.

-Sumiaz (talk) 00:07, 12 February 2018 (UTC)

Guiding entry creationEdit




A side-by-side comparison of Quechua verses and English translations. The English translation is primarily based on that by Clements R. Markham in Ollanta: An Ancient Ynca Drama (1871). Additional supporting texts include Johann Jakob von Tschudi's Ollanta: ein altperuanisches Drama aus der Kechuasprache (1876) and Julio Calvo Pérez's Ollantay: El rigor d'un pare i la generositat d'un rei (2004).


Hanaq Pachap Kusikuynin

A side-by-side comparison of modern Quechua orthography and that written down by Juan Pérez Bocanegra in the 1600's, the latter being preferentially used for choral lyrics. This page also includes a Spanish translation by Bruce Mannheim and an English translation based on the work of Rosaleen Howard.


Arte de la lengua Quichua

An English translation of Diego de Torres Rubio's 1619 description of the language as spoken in contemporary Lima.


Tarmap Pachawaraynin

Quechua poetry and fables from Tarma, collected by Adolfo Vienrich and published in 1906.


CRI II-27: "The poetry of the Incan amawtas and harawiqs."
CRI VI-8: "They counted by threads and knots;" VI-9 "What was entered in their accounts."

From Comentarios Reales de los Incas ("Royal Commentaries of the Incas") by Garcilaso de la Vega (1609).


From El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno ("The First New Chronicle and Good Government") by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (c.1615).

Word listsEdit

Qullaw SimiqullqaEdit

Qusqu-Qullaw Yachakuqkunap Simiqullqa

Entries from a Cusco-Collao dictionary distributed by the Peruvian Ministry of Education.

Chanka SimiqullqaEdit

Wamanqa-Chanka Yachakuqkunap Simiqullqa

Entries from an Ayacucho-Chanca dictionary distributed by the Peruvian Ministry of Education. Work on this will begin when the above simiqullqa is finished; hopefully the substantial overlap between the two will make this a faster process. verbsEdit

Current work is on adding verbs included in the vocabulary list at Verbs here are organized by the the the number of columns they appear in within the vocabulary table available there. There is some redundancy because if one database is listed in two columns with different spelling variants, I counted it as two "databases." As a result, this list is not meant to be an accurate representation of the mostly commonly used Quechua words, but rather an estimation to guide the addition of new entries.


  • {{R:Chuquimamani 2005|pg=###}}
    "" in Chuquimamani Valer, Yachakuqkunapa Simi Qullqa - Qusqu Qullaw Qhichwa Simipi, Ministerio de Educación del Perú, Lima, 2005, page ###. →ISBN.
  • {{R:Laime 2007|pg=###}}
    "" in Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario bilingüe - Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, 2nd edition, La Paz, 2007, page ###.



(Partial) List of Quechua Resources

Breve GramáticaEdit

Breve Gramática de Quechua

Summary of (Southern) Quechua as described by Dr. Cecilia Rivera Orams, et al. in Breve Gramática de Quechua.


Inflection TablesEdit

Now available in the following categories:

Noun Declension TablesEdit

Two tables exist, one for cases (16 cases as of 10/7/14), and another for the cases of possessed forms (7 pronouns x16 cases each). Both include singular and plural forms. The tables are separate but can be added together by pasting the following (replace X with either v or c depending on whether the word ends in a vowel or consonant):


There are few differences between the two. The main changes are the addition of the euphonic particle -ni in front of some cases and possessed forms to prevent consonant clusters, and the distinction between the genitive -p for vowel-final and -pa for consonant-final words.

Verb Inflection TablesEdit

One size fits all (for the time being). Includes past, present, future participles; regular finite forms of the present, reported past, experienced past, and future tenses; affirmative and negative imperatives for second- and third-person. Use this template on any infinitive-form verb, including the verb without its infinite marker -y. For example, given a made-up verb, wikiy, the conjugation table would be entered as:



Quechua Workbook



Alternate SpellingEdit




Conjugated VerbEdit


* {{a|DIALECT}} {{IPA|//|lang=qu}}

**ALT SPELLING (placed after ==Quechua==):
===Alternative forms===
* [[]] {{qualifier|}}

# {{lb|qu|entercontext}} 

**BORROWING (placed at beginning):
Borrowed from {{bor|qu|ORIGINLANG|ORIGINWORD}}.

**DERIVATION (placed at the beginning):
From {{affix|qu|BASE|-SUF}}

**DISAMBIGUATION (after N/V infl; Aj/Av def):
====Usage notes====
Not to be confused with {{m|qu|ALTPAGE}}.

**EXT LINKS (placed at end):
====Derived terms====
====See also====
* [[]]

**SYNONYMS (placed at end):
* {{qualifier||}} [[]]

**REFERENCES (placed at the end):
* {{R:Chuquimamani 2005}}
* {{R:Laime 2007}}
* {{R:Diccionario AMLQ}}

O'odham WorkbookEdit


See also: O'odham language (Orthography)
  • There are currently two spelling standards for O'odham: Alvarez-Hale and Saxton. Primary entries are in Alvarez-Hale with some exceptions:
    • No word-initial glottal stops ', so 'O'odham is rendered O'odham.
    • Wiktionary does not support entries containing the regular colon :, so all instances must be replaced with the modifier letter colon .
  • V and W are broadly interchangeable. The former predominates in Akimel O'odham and the latter in Tohono O'odham. Wikipedia lists vainom "knife" and wuai "(blacktail) deer" as representative words; however these can also be written vainomĭ/wainom and huavĭ/huawĭ, depending on the dialect and personal preference of the speaker. New entries on Wiktionary will use W with the understanding that:
    1. The letter W may be realized as /v/ or /w/ depending on the dialect.
    2. A single spelling is chosen for convenience, but no single spelling is considered "correct".



Yuman WorkbookEdit

A workbook for Yuman languages, primarily Maricopa. Will ultimately attempt to cover:

  • Upland Yuman: Havasupai-Hualapai, Yavapai
  • River Yuman: Maricopa, Mojave, Quechan (Yuma)
  • Delta Yuman: Cocopah

Ainu WorkbookEdit

Nahuatl WorkbookEdit

Amharic WorkbookEdit