User:Vampyricon/三

See also: Ξ, , , , , and
U+4E09, 三
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09

[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Translingual

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Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
File:Vampyricon/三-order.gif

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition or 𠄟)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №4

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

Further reading

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Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for Vampyricon/三:

Wikisource


Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial
𠫰𠬅𠬄 less used

𢦘
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”. Triplication of (“one”).

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1

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Lua error in Module:yue-pron/Taishanese at line 45: Invalid Taishanese syllable: ts

Definitions

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  1. three
  2. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) the other woman; the other man
  3. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  4. a surname
See also
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Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 106 108 1012
Normal
(小寫小写)
, , , , ,
十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
百萬百万,
(Philippines),
面桶 (Philippines)
亿 (Taiwan)
萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
Financial
(大寫大写)
Playing cards in Mandarin · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
             
尖兒尖儿 (jiānr) (èr) (sān) () () (liù) ()
             
() (jiǔ) (shí) 鉤兒钩儿 (gōur) 圈兒圈儿 (quānr), 皮蛋 (pídàn, regional) K 小王 (xiǎowáng, black), 大王 (red),
小鬼 (xiǎoguǐ, black), 大鬼 (dàguǐ, red)

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic (Vampyricon/三):
  • Japanese: Lua error in Module:ja-ruby at line 628: Can not match "Vampyricon/三" and "さん"
  • Korean: 삼(Vampyricon/三)
  • Vietnamese: tam (Vampyricon/三)

Others:

Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (16) (16)
Final () (143) (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Baxter sam samH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/ /sɑmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/ /sɑmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/ /sɑmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/ /samH/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/ /sɑmH/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/ /sɑmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/ /sɑmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān sàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
saam1 saam3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam › ‹ samH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?) /*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three three times

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 10963 10965
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːm/ /*suːms/

Definitions

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(obsolete)

  1. repeatedly; thrice
    三思  ―  sānsī  ―  to think carefully

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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  1. three

Readings

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Compounds

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Alternative forms

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  • (Financial/formal form):

Etymology 1

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Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal :
Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

*/sam//samu//saɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC sam|samH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

Pronunciation

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Lua error in Module:ja-pron at line 88: Parameter "y" is not used by this template.

Numeral

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(さん) (san

  1. three, 3
    Synonym: スリー (surī)
  2. third
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Lua error in Module:ja-pron at line 88: Parameter "y" is not used by this template.

Numeral

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(サン) (san

  1. three
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

⟨mi1/mi/

From Old Japanese.

Likely an apophonic form of (mu, six), compare (yo, four) with (ya, eight). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Lua error in Module:ja-pron at line 88: Parameter "y" is not used by this template.

Numeral

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() (mi

  1. three
    ()()()()、[…]
    hi, fu, mi, yo,[…]
    one, two, three, four, […]
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
みい
Grade: 1
irregular

/mi//miː/

Shift from mi above.[1]

Pronunciation

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Lua error in Module:ja-pron at line 88: Parameter "y" is not used by this template.

Numeral

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(みい) (

  1. (colloquial) three
    (ひい)(ふう)(みい)(よお)(いつ)(むう)(なあ)(やあ)(こお)(とお)
    hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
    one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

Coordinate terms

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Japanese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Regular (れい) (rei)
(ゼロ) (zero)
(いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
() (shi)
() (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
(しち) (shichi)
(はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
() (ku)
(じゅう) ()
Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
(いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
(さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
(いっ)(せん) (issen)
(さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
(いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

References

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  1. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DJR

3



Korean

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Etymology

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Korean numbers (edit)
30
 ←  2 3 4  → 
    Native isol.: (set)
    Native attr.: (se), (dated) (seok), (archaic) (seo)
    Sino-Korean: (sam)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 셋째 (setjjae)

From Middle Chinese (MC sam).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: sàm)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 석〯 (Yale: sěk) (Yale: sàm)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (set sam))

  1. Hanja form? of (three).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

3


Vietnamese

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Han character

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Vampyricon/三: Hán Việt readings: tam (()(cam)(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
Vampyricon/三: Nôm readings: tam[1][2][3][4][5][6], ba[1], tám[5]

  1. chữ Hán form of tam (three).

Compounds

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See 三/derived terms § Vietnamese.

References

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