Wiktionary:About Hindi

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Hindi is the register of Hindustani, an Indo-Aryan language, officially promulgated by the Government of India. Hindi on Wiktionary is any instance of Hindustani in the Devanagari script.

Scope:

  1. English Wiktionary should have entries for all Hindi words that exist in Hindi language. The definitions and descriptions should be given in English. Title should be in Devanagari script.
  2. Hindi translations of English words should be added to the Translations section of English entries.

EtymologyEdit

Hindi's direct ancestors are: Sauraseni Prakrit (psu), Proto-Indo Aryan (inc-pro), and so on. It takes significant amounts of loanwords from Sanskrit, either through Sauraseni or by Proto-Indo-Aryan. Other important loaning languages are Persian (fa), Arabic (ar), Turkish (tr), English (en), and Portuguese (pt).

To enter etymologies, use {{der|hi|<langcode>|<term>}}, which langcode being the ISO code of the language. Other etymology templates are {{bor}}, {{inh}}, and {{cog}}; see their respective documentations.

TransliterationEdit

Hindi transliterations (that is, romanizations) are not words. Hindi entries should only be written in the Devanagari script. So, कुत्ता (kuttā) should only have the Devanagari entry – not kuttā.

Wiktionary uses a modification of IAST for Hindi to show Latin-alphabet transliterations of Hindi words. See Wiktionary:Hindi transliteration for more specific instructions on transliterating Devanagari for Hindi entries. The transliteration is provided by Module:hi-translit.

Creating Hindi entriesEdit

Read Wiktionary:EL for a more comprehensive guide, for all languages.

Entry nameEdit

The name of the entry is that of the word or phrase that you are defining.

The entry name should always be the Devanagari script.

In words where the bindu (and sometimes the chandrabindu) can be used, always keep the lemma at the entry using the bindu/chandrabindu (depending on Google hits etc.), and keep the entry using a nasal consonant and virama as a soft redirect with {{alternative form of}}.

Words that, through etymological origin, have a nuqta, should be kept at the entry title with the nuqta. Soft redirects from non-nuqta variants using {{altform}} are encouraged, nonetheless MediaWiki software automatically redirects to the form with nuqta if the nuqta-less entry does not exist.

The essentialsEdit

  1. Language header lets you know the language of the word in question (==Hindi==). It is almost always in a level two heading (See Wiktionary:How to edit a page for some basic terminology we use). When there is more than one language header on a page, the language headers should appear in alphabetical order with Translingual and English given priority. Do not use "Indian" or "Hindu" in the language header.
  2. Part of Speech header It is the key descriptor for the grammatical function of the term in question (such as 'noun', 'verb', etc). The definitions themselves come within its scope. This heading is most frequently in a level three heading, and a page may have more than one for a single language.
  3. Inflection Line is the line immediately following the part of speech header. In the simplest entries, this will be the entry name, followed by the gender, transliteration, or other simple relevant information. Users should (at least) attempt make use of the standard inflection templates provided.
  4. Definitions or translations of the word appear as a numbered list in the part of speech section immediately following the inflection line, though it is a good idea to include a blank line in between for ease of editing.
  5. Declension/Conjugation should follow the Part of Speech header at a level 4. Use ====Declension==== for nouns and adjectives, and for verbs use ====Conjugation====.

Formatting Hindi entriesEdit

Read Wiktionary:EL for a more comprehensive guide, for all languages.

NounsEdit

For a model entry, see कुत्ता (kuttā, dog).

Nouns follow standard practices as per WT:EL. For declensions, there is now only one declension template, {{hi-ndecl}}. Most of the time it is enough to just specify the gender, like this: {{hi-ndecl|<M>}} (for masculine nouns) or {{hi-ndecl|<F>}} (for feminine nouns). See the template documentation for more information.

Preferred order of sectionsEdit

The part of speech section will often include simple translation(s) into English in place of definitions, but there may be subsections.

Following is the preferred sequence for these standard sections:

 ==Hindi==
 ===Alternative spellings===
 ===Etymology===
 ===Pronunciation===
 ===(Part of Speech)===
 ====Declension==== (for nouns, adjectives and pronouns)
 ====Conjugation==== (for verbs)
 ====Usage notes====
 ====Synonyms====
 ====Antonyms====
 ====Derived terms====
 ====Related terms====
 ===See also===

EtymologyEdit

There is no central Hindi etymological dictionary as of 2017, and it is likely to remain that way for some time. However, almost all good Hindi dictionaries give short etymologies or at least the language from which the term is derived. Generally, {{R:hi:McGregor}} and {{R:hi:Dasa}} are the most accessible and complete (the first one is preferred).

For native Indo-Aryan words that may or may not have a Sanskrit etymon {{R:CDIAL}} is your best bet. Note that the Hindi terms are transliterated using phoneticized IAST, except (va) is transliterated wa.

For Perso-Arabic borrowings {{R:fa:Steingass}} is exceptional.

No good resources currently exist for borrowings from Chagatai; most sources mistakenly give Turkish etymons.

Other Hindi aidsEdit

ResourcesEdit

  • R. S. McGregor (1993) Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, →ISBN
  • Hardev Bahri (1989) Learners' Hindi-English Dictionary[1]
  • John T. Platts (1884) A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English[2]
  • Category:Hindi reference templates