Wiktionary:Manchu transliteration

There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by German linguist Paul Georg von Möllendorff, Abkai transliteration, the transliteration used in A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (CMCD). There is also a system of Cyrillization invented by Russian diplomat Ivan Zakharov, using the pre-reform Russian alphabet. The following table shows the differences between three major transliteration systems for the Manchu alphabet.

Manchu transliterationsEdit

Sound (IPA) Möllendorff Abkai CMCD Manchu and Unicode Notes
[a] a a a 1820
[ə] e e e 185D
[i] i[1] i i[1] 1873
[ɨ] y[2] y 185F only used in loanwords
[ɔ] o o o 1823
[u] u u u 1860
[ʊ] ū v uu 1861
[n] n n n 1828
[ŋ] ng ng ng 1829
[qʰ] & [kʰ] k k k 1874
[q] & [k] g g g 1864
[χ] & [x] h h h 1865
[p] b b b 182A
[pʰ] p p p 1866
[s]; [ɕ] before [i] s s s 1830
[ʃ]; [ɕ] before [i] š x sh[3] 1867
[tʰ] t t t 1868
[t] d d d 1869
[l] l l l 182F
[m] m m m 182E
[t͡ʃʰ]; [t͡ɕʰ] before [i] c q ch 1834
[t͡ʃ]; [t͡ɕ] before [i] j j zh 1835
[j] y y y 1836
[r] r r r 1875
[f] f f f 1876
[w] w w w 1838
[kʰ] k῾ kk 183A only used in loanwords
[k] g῾ gg 186C only used in loanwords
[x] h῾ hh 186D only used in loanwords
[tsʰ] ts῾[2] c c 186E only used in loanwords
[tsʰ] ts cyʻ cy ᡮᡟ 186E 185F only used in loanwords
[t͡s] dz z z 186F only used in loanwords
[ʐ] ž rr 1870 only used in loanwords
[sɨ] sy syʻ sy ᠰᡟ 1830 185F only used in loanwords
[tʂʰ] c῾ q ch 1871 only used in loanwords
[tʂʰɨ] c῾y qyʻ chy ᡱᡳ 1871 1873 only used in loanwords
[tʂ] j zh zh 1877 only used in loanwords
[tʂɨ] jy jyʻ zhy ᡷᡳ 1877 1873 only used in loanwords

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Excluding ᡱᡳ and ᡷᡳ
  2. 2.0 2.1 Excluding ᡮᡟ
  3. ^ Separate s and h are written as s'h to avoid confusion with sh

See alsoEdit