Open main menu

Wiktionary:Middle Persian transliteration

Pahlavi scriptsEdit

Pahlavi scripts are used for writing Middle Persian and Parthian, two closely related Middle Iranian languages. These scripts are directly or indirectly derived from the Aramaic alphabet. The scripts are Inscriptional Pahlavi, Inscriptional Parthian, Psalter Pahlavi, Book Pahlavi, and Avestan. The first three are relatively similar and, like Aramaic, are abjad and follow similar rules. Book Pahlavi, which has been the most widely used script, is more complicated. Avestan is a phonetic alphabet. Beside the Pahlavi scripts, Manichaean (also an abjad) has also been used for some forms of Middle Iranian languages.

Of these, only Inscriptional Parthian, Book Pahlavi, and Manichaean alphabets have been used for writing down Parthian.

In some of these scripts, some letters are merged into one, they are indicated with the equal sign (=) in this page. The letter-by-letter transliteration is usually performed in such a way to distinguish these letters, this practice is followed in Wiktionary.

The numerals are not listed here yet.

Comparative list of the lettersEdit

The table below provides a comparative list of the letters of four Pahlavi scripts together with their corresponding letters in Aramaic.

Pahlavi scripts letters
Aramaic
(Armi)
Inscriptional
Parthian
(Prti)
Inscriptional
Pahlavi
(Phli)
Psalter
Pahlavi
(Phlp)
Book Pahlavi
(Phlv)
๐ก€โ€Ž (สพ, aleph) ๐ญ€โ€Ž (สพ) ๐ญ โ€Ž (สพ) ๐ฎ€โ€Ž ๐ฎฐโ€Ž (สพ)
๐กโ€Ž (b, bet) ๐ญโ€Ž (b) ๐ญกโ€Ž (b) ๐ฎโ€Ž ๐ฎฑโ€Ž (b)
๐ก‚โ€Ž (g, gimel) ๐ญ‚โ€Ž (g) ๐ญขโ€Ž (g) ๐ฎ‚โ€Ž ๐ฎฒโ€Ž (?)
๐กƒโ€Ž (d, dalet) ๐ญƒโ€Ž (d) ๐ญฃโ€Ž (d) ๐ฎƒโ€Ž = g
๐ก„โ€Ž (h, he) ๐ญ„โ€Ž (h) ๐ญคโ€Ž (h) ๐ฎ„โ€Ž ๐ฎดโ€Ž (h) (๐ฎผโ€Žโ€Ž (mโ€Ž)โ€Ž + ๐ฎตโ€Ž ('))
๐ก…โ€Ž (w, waw) ๐ญ…โ€Ž (w) ๐ญฅโ€Ž (w) ๐ฎ…โ€Ž ๐ฎตโ€Ž (')
๐ก†โ€Ž (z, zayin) ๐ญ†โ€Ž (z) ๐ญฆโ€Ž (z) ๐ฎ†โ€Ž ๐ฎถโ€Ž (z)
๐ก‡โ€Ž (แธฅ, heth) ๐ญ‡โ€Ž (แธฅ) ๐ญงโ€Ž (แธฅ) ๐ฎ‡โ€Ž = สพ
๐กˆโ€Ž (แนญ, teth) ๐ญˆโ€Ž (แนญ) ๐ญจโ€Ž (แนญ) โ€” โ€”
๐ก‰โ€Ž (y, yodh) ๐ญ‰โ€Ž (y) ๐ญฉโ€Ž (y) ๐ฎˆโ€Ž = g
๐กŠโ€Ž (k, kaph) ๐ญŠโ€Ž (k) ๐ญชโ€Ž (k) ๐ฎ‰โ€Ž ๐ฎทโ€Ž (k)
๐ฎธโ€Ž (k, old kaph)
๐ก‹โ€Ž (l, lamedh) ๐ญ‹โ€Ž (l) ๐ญซโ€Ž (l) ๐ฎŠโ€Ž ๐ฎนโ€Ž (l)
๐ฎปโ€Ž (แธท, l-lamedh)
๐ฎบโ€Ž (ฦš, old lamedh)
๐กŒโ€Ž (m, mem) ๐ญŒโ€Ž (m) ๐ญฌโ€Ž (m) ๐ฎ‹โ€Ž ๐ฎผโ€Ž (m)
๐กโ€Ž (n, nun) ๐ญโ€Ž (n) ๐ญญโ€Ž (n) ๐ฎŒโ€Ž = w
๐กŽโ€Ž (s, samekh) ๐ญŽโ€Ž (s) ๐ญฎโ€Ž (s) ๐ฎโ€Ž ๐ฎฝโ€Ž (s)
๐กโ€Ž (สฟ, ayin) ๐ญโ€Ž (สฟ) = w = w = w
๐กโ€Ž (p, pe) ๐ญโ€Ž (p) ๐ญฏโ€Ž (p) ๐ฎŽโ€Ž ๐ฎพโ€Ž (p)
๐ก‘โ€Ž (c, tsade) ๐ญ‘โ€Ž (c) ๐ญฐโ€Ž (c) ๐ฎโ€Ž ๐ฎฟโ€Ž (c)
๐ก’โ€Ž (q, qoph) ๐ญ’โ€Ž (q) = m = m = m
๐ก“โ€Ž (r, resh) ๐ญ“โ€Ž (r) = w = w = w
๐ก”โ€Ž (ลก, shin) ๐ญ”โ€Ž (ลก) ๐ญฑโ€Ž (ลก) ๐ฎโ€Ž ๐ฏ€โ€Ž (ลก)
๐ก•โ€Ž (t, taw) ๐ญ•โ€Ž (t) ๐ญฒโ€Ž (t) ๐ฎ‘โ€Ž ๐ฏโ€Ž (t)

Inscriptional PahlaviEdit

Transliteration of Inscriptional Pahlavi
Letter In Iranian words In arameograms
Transliteration Transcription Transliteration
Wikt. Other Wikt. Other
๐ญ โ€Ž (สพ) สพ ' (null), ฤ, a A
๐ญกโ€Ž (b) b b B
๐ญขโ€Ž (g) g g G
๐ญฃโ€Ž (d) d d, y D
๐ญคโ€Ž (h) โ€” E H
๐ญฅโ€Ž (w) w w, ล, ลซ, (o), u W
โ€” O สฟ
r r R
๐ญฆโ€Ž (z) z z Z
๐ญงโ€Ž (แธฅ) h แธฅ h, x H แธค
๐ญจโ€Ž (แนญ) โ€” แนฌ
๐ญฉโ€Ž (y) y y, j, ฤ“, ฤซ, (e), i Y
' y (null) '
๐ญชโ€Ž (k) k g, k K
๐ญซโ€Ž (l) l r, l L
๐ญฌโ€Ž (m) m m M
โ€” Q
๐ญญโ€Ž (n) n n N
๐ญฎโ€Ž (s) s s, h S
๐ญฏโ€Ž (p) p p, f P
๐ญฐโ€Ž (c) c แนฃ ฤ, z, j C แนข
๐ญฑโ€Ž (ลก) ลก ลก, j ล 
๐ญฒโ€Ž (t) t d, t T

Book PahlaviEdit

The transliteration system used in Wiktionary is based on the system given in the "Introduction" of David Neil MacKenzie's A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Some corrupt forms are missing in this table, see MacKenzie for more.

Transliteration of Book Pahlavi
Letter In Iranian words In arameograms As corrupted form
Wikt. Other Transcription Wikt. Other Iran. Aram.
(aleph) สพ ' (null), ฤ, a A
h แธฅ h, x H แธค
(bet) b b B แธก, แธ, ศณ
(gimel) g g G แธ‡, แบ•, แธต แธ†, แบ”, แธด
d d, y D
y y, j, ฤ“, ฤซ, e, i Y
(he) (mem) + (waw); see (mem) and (waw). E H
(waw) w w, ล, ลซ, o, u W
n n N
โ€” O สฟ
r r R
' (null) '
(zayin) z z Z แธ , แธŽ, ศฒ
(kaph) k g, k K
(kaph2) k ฮณ ฮณ K
(lamedh) l r, l L
(lamedh2) l ฦš l L ศฝ
(mem) m m M
โ€” Q
(samekh) s s, h S
(pe) p p, f P
(tsade) c แนฃ ฤ, z, j C แนข pฬ„ Pฬฑ
(shin) ลก ลก, j ล 
(taw) t d, t T DฬฒRฬฒ

See alsoEdit