Albanian

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Etymology

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Learned borrowing from Latin abstractus.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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abstrakt (feminine abstrakte, masculine plural abstraktë, feminine plural abstrakte)

  1. abstract
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Further reading

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  • “abstrakt”, in FGJSSH: Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Dictionary of the modern Albanian language]‎[2] (in Albanian), 1980
  • abstrakt”, in FGJSH: Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe [Dictionary of the Albanian language] (in Albanian), 2006

Czech

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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abstrakt m inan

  1. abstract (an abridgement or summary)

Declension

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Further reading

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  • abstrakt in Kartotéka Novočeského lexikálního archivu
  • abstrakt in Internetová jazyková příručka

Danish

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Etymology 1

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From Latin abstractus, past participle of abstrahere (draw away, withdraw).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /abstrakt/, [ɑpˈstχakt]

Noun

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abstrakt n (singular definite abstraktet, plural indefinite abstrakter)

  1. abstract (that which is abstract)
  2. abstract noun
Inflection
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Antonyms
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Adjective

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abstrakt

  1. abstract (apart from practice or reality, not concrete; free from representational qualities)
Inflection
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Inflection of abstrakt
Positive Comparative Superlative
Indefinte common singular abstrakt 2
Indefinite neuter singular abstrakt 2
Plural abstrakte 2
Definite attributive1 abstrakte
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.
Synonyms
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Antonyms
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  • (antonym(s) of apart from practice or reality, not concrete): konkret
  • (antonym(s) of free from representational qualities): naturalistisk

Adverb

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abstrakt

  1. abstractly, in the abstract

Etymology 2

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Borrowed from English abstract.

Noun

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abstrakt n

  1. abstract (an abrigement or summary)

Further reading

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German

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin abstractus.

Pronunciation

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  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -akt

Adjective

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abstrakt (strong nominative masculine singular abstrakter, comparative abstrakter, superlative am abstraktesten)

  1. abstract

Declension

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Descendants

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  • Hungarian: absztrakt
  • Slovene: abstrakten

Further reading

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  • abstrakt” in Duden online
  • abstrakt” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Icelandic

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Noun

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abstrakt n (genitive singular abstrakts, nominative plural abströkt)

  1. abstract

Declension

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Adjective

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abstrakt (not comparable)

  1. abstract

Inflection

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This adjective is not inflected.

Further reading

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Luxembourgish

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Pronunciation

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Adjective

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abstrakt (masculine abstrakten, neuter abstrakt, comparative méi abstrakt, superlative am abstraktesten)

  1. abstract

Declension

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Norwegian Bokmål

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Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /abˈstrakt/, /apˈstrakt/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -akt
  • Hyphenation: ab‧strakt

Etymology 1

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From English abstract, from Middle English abstract (abstract), from Latin abstractus (drawn away from, abstract).

Noun

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abstrakt n (definite singular abstraktet, indefinite plural abstrakt or abstrakter, definite plural abstrakta or abstraktene)

  1. an abstract (an abridgement or summary of a longer publication)
    Synonyms: sammendrag, konsentrat, referat, oppsummering
    Kan du lese abstraktet til kapitlet høyt?
    Could you read out aloud the abstract to the chapter?
    • 1971, Teknisk Ukeblad, page 3:
      abstrakter fra tekniske tidsskrifter
      abstracts from technical journals
    • 2014 June 19, Dagens Medisin, page 34:
      han er en av mange norske leger og forskere som i år presenterte funn i form av abstrakter på kreftkongressen ASCO i Chicago
      he is one of many Norwegian doctors and researchers who this year presented findings in the form of abstracts at the ASCO Cancer Congress in Chicago

Etymology 2

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From Latin abstractum.

Noun

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abstrakt n (definite singular abstraktet, indefinite plural abstrakt or abstrakter, definite plural abstrakta or abstraktene)

  1. abstract (phenomenon or concept that is thought or intangible)
    Antonym: konkret
    Kjærlighet er et abstrakt.
    Love is an abstract.
    Å tenke i abstrakter.
    To think in abstracts.
    • 1976, Ebba Haslund, Hver i sin verden, page 85:
      snakke seg bort fra det nære, konkrete og stige til værs i abstraktenes tynne luft
      talk away from the near, concrete and ascend into the thin air of the abstracts
    • 1989, Karin Gundersen, Roland Barthes, page 15:
      abstraktene … tildeles roller på Historiens scene
      the abstracts… are assigned roles on the Stage of History
    • 2000, Karin Sveen, Klassereise, page 16:
      et slikt abstrakt [«det moderne jeg»] kan neppe forventes å forholde seg til noe som helst, og i særdeleshet ikke til dette konkrete
      such an abstract ["the modern self"] can hardly be expected to relate to anything, and in particular not to this particular
    • 2012 November 19, Dagbladet, page 45:
      som essayist gransker [Ole Robert] Sunde detaljene i tilværelsen, enten det dreier seg om konkrete gjenstander eller abstrakter som for eksempel musikk
      as essayist examines [Ole Robert] Healthy details of life, whether they are concrete objects or abstracts such as music
  2. (linguistics, grammar) an abstract noun
    Antonym: konkret
    Konkreter og abstrakter.
    Concrete nouns and abstract nouns.
    Skjønnhet, storhet, fred og løping er abstrakter.
    Beauty, greatness, peace and running are abstract nouns.
  3. (music) a lever at organ bellows
    • 1978 September 2, A-magasinet, page 10:
      forbindelsen mellom tast og pipe … består [blant annet av] abstrakter [som er] trelister som overfører bevegelse i lengderetningen
      the connection between key and pipe… consists [among other things of] abstracts [which are] wooden strips that transmit movement in the longitudinal direction
Descendants
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Etymology 3

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From Latin abstractus (drawn away, abstract).

Adjective

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abstrakt (indefinite singular abstrakt, definite singular and plural abstrakte, comparative mer abstrakt, superlative mest abstrakt)

  1. abstract (which has been created by abstraction; which is without direct connection with reality)
    Antonym: konkret
    Ordet "dumhet" har en abstrakt betydning.
    The word "stupidity" has an abstract meaning.
    • 1949 December 31, Verdens Gang, page 9:
      sosialøkonomen Simiand kjempet mot den oppfatning at sosialøkonomien er en abstrakt vitenskap om forhold uavhengige av menneskelig vilje
      social economist Simiand fought against the notion that the social economy is an abstract science of conditions independent of human will
    • 2015 January 19, dagbladet.no:
      det følelsesmessige dominerer vår hukommelse, vi husker det som rører oss følelsesmessig og ikke den abstrakte kunnskapen
      the emotional dominates our memory, we remember what moves us emotionally and not the abstract knowledge
  2. abstract (which to a large extent requires the ability to abstract; something which is hard to imagine)
    Matematikk er for abstrakt etter min smak.
    Mathematics is too abstract for my liking.
    • 2014 July 22, Vårt Land, page 8:
      [frigjøringsteologien] var opptatt av å tale de fattiges sak, men kampen kan ha blitt for abstrakt for mange vanlige folk
      [liberation theology] was concerned with speaking out on behalf of the poor, but the struggle may have become too abstract for many ordinary people
  3. (rare) abstract, imaginary (not concrete: conceptual, ideal.)
    • 1921, Jonas Lie, Samlede Digterverker VIII, page 430:
      assuranceselskabet – banken – saadanne abstrakte personligheder uden blod i sig
      the insurance company - the bank - such abstract personalities without blood in them
  4. (linguistics, grammar) abstract as a noun, denoting an intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person
    Antonym: konkret
    Substantivet «belysning» kan ha både abstrakt og konkret betydning.
    The noun lighting can have both abstract and concrete meaning.
    • 1984 November 1, VG, page 21:
      kort og konsist følger Johan Vogt opp kampen mot de abstrakte substantiver, ord som frihet, fred, demokrati, sosialisme, liberalisme, rettferd osv.
      Johan Vogt briefly and concisely follows up the struggle against the abstract nouns, words such as freedom, peace, democracy, socialism, liberalism, justice, etc.
    • 1995 April 30, Aftenposten, page 11:
      et overordentlig rikt, overmåte blomstrende sprog, full av abstrakte substantiver og poetiske verb
      an extraordinarily rich, exceedingly flourishing language, full of abstract nouns and poetic verbs
  5. (art, dance, music) abstract (pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them)
    abstrakt kunstabstract art
    • 2006, Lars Roar Langslet, Når fuglen letter, page 178:
      musikken er en underlig kunstart – helt abstrakt, og samtidig helt konkret
      music is a strange art - completely abstract, and at the same time very concrete
    • 1964, Lorentz Eckhoff, En verden, page 98:
      kunsten, alle kunstarter, beveget seg henimot det abstrakte; maleri og skulptur var kjed av menneskekroppen
      art, all art forms, moved towards the abstract; painting and sculpture were bored of the human body
    • 2014 July 5, Helgeland Arbeiderblad, page 28:
      det ville være bedre med en retrospektiv utstilling, for å sette den abstrakte kunsten i perspektiv
      it would be better with a retrospective exhibition, to put the abstract art in perspective
    • 2015 January 15, Adresseavisen, page 9:
      i hans nye utstilling «Ship of Fools» vises nyproduserte figurative og abstrakte malerier av ulike fartøyer, hovedsakelig skip og fly
      his new exhibition «Ship of Fools» shows newly produced figurative and abstract paintings of various vessels, mainly ships and aircraft
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References

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Anagrams

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Norwegian Nynorsk

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Etymology 1

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From the identical adjective, the definition is influenced by English abstract.

Noun

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abstrakt n (definite singular abstraktet, indefinite plural abstrakt, definite plural abstrakta)

  1. abstract
    Kjærleik er eit abstrakt.
    Love is an abstract.
    Kan du lese abstraktet til kapitlet høgt?
    Could you read out aloud the abstract to the chapter?
Synonyms
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Etymology 2

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From Latin abstractus, perfect participle of abstrahere, "to subtract", from ab(s)-, "away", + trahere, "to draw".

Adjective

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abstrakt (indefinite singular abstrakt, definite singular and plural abstrakte, comparative meir abstrakt, superlative mest abstrakt)

  1. abstract
    Matematikk er for abstrakt etter smaken min.
    Mathematics is too abstract for my liking.
    Ordet "dumskap" har ein abstrakt tyding.
    The word "stupidity" has an abstract meaning.
Synonyms
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References

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Polish

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Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology

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Borrowed from English abstract,[1] from Middle English abstract, from Latin abstractus.[2] First attested in 1816.[3]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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abstrakt m inan

  1. abstraction (separation from reality)
    Synonym: abstrakcja
    czysty abstraktpure abstraction
    zupełny abstraktcomplete abstraction
    warstwa abstraktulayer of abstraction
    sfera abstraktusphere of abstraction
    definicja abstraktudefinition of abstraction
    pojęcie abstraktuidea of abstraction
    emocja abstraktuemotion of abstraction
    obraz abstraktuimage of abstraction
  2. (sciences) abstract, abstraction (abridgement or summary of a longer publication)
    abstrakt matematycznymathematical abstract
    tworzenie abstraktucreation of an abstract
    słowa abstraktuwords of an abstractu
    abstrakty pracabstracts of works

Declension

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Derived terms

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adjective
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adjectives
adverbs
nouns
verbs

References

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  1. ^ Mirosław Bańko, Lidia Wiśniakowska (2021) “abstrakt”, in Wielki słownik wyrazów obcych, →ISBN
  2. ^ Witold Doroszewski, editor (1958–1969), “abstrakt”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), Warszawa: PWN
  3. ^ Stanisław Staszic (1816) Dzieła Stanisława Staszica. T. 5, Religia : poema w języku francuskim napisane[1], page 82

Further reading

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Swedish

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Etymology

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From Latin abstractus.

Adjective

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abstrakt

  1. abstract, i.e. not concrete

Declension

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Inflection of abstrakt
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular abstrakt abstraktare abstraktast
Neuter singular abstrakt abstraktare abstraktast
Plural abstrakta abstraktare abstraktast
Masculine plural3 abstrakte abstraktare abstraktast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 abstrakte abstraktare abstraktaste
All abstrakta abstraktare abstraktaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Synonyms

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Descendants

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Noun

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abstrakt n or c

  1. an abstract noun n
  2. an actuator in the mechanism of a pipe organ, a wooden or metal bar between the key and the pipe valve c
  3. an abstract, a summary of a scholarly paper n or c

Declension

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Declension of abstrakt 1
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative abstrakt abstraktet abstrakter abstrakterna
Genitive abstrakts abstraktets abstrakters abstrakternas
Declension of abstrakt 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative abstrakt abstrakten abstrakter abstrakterna
Genitive abstrakts abstraktens abstrakters abstrakternas
Declension of abstrakt 3
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative abstrakt abstraktet abstrakt abstrakten
Genitive abstrakts abstraktets abstrakts abstraktens

Synonyms

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summary

References

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