See also: Bitumen

English

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
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Etymology

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From Middle English bithumen, bitumen, from Latin bitūmen. Doublet of bitume.

Pronunciation

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  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈbɪt.jʊ.mɪn/, /ˈbɪt͡ʃ.ʊ.mɪn/
  • (Canada) IPA(key): /ˈbɪt͡ʃ.ʊ.mɪn/, /ˈbɪt.jʊ.mɪn/
  • (US) IPA(key): /bɪˈtumən/, /bɪˈtjumən/, /baɪˈtumən/
  • Audio (UK):(file)

Noun

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bitumen (countable and uncountable, plural bitumina or bitumens)

  1. A sticky, black, highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum, burning with a bright flame. It occurs as an abundant natural product in many places, as on the shores of the Dead and Caspian Seas. It is used in cements, in the construction of pavements, etc.; Mineral pitch.
    Synonym: Jew's pitch
    • 2014 August 24, Jeff Howell, “Home improvements: gravel paths and cutting heating bills [print version: Cold comfort in technology, 23 August 2014, p. P5]”, in The Daily Telegraph (Property)[2]:
      You need to excavate and remove the topsoil, line the subsoil with a geotextile, then lay and compact hardcore. Follow this with a layer of compacted "hoggin" – compacted clay, gravel and sand. This is then sprayed with hot bitumen, and has a layer of pea shingle rolled into it.
  2. (by extension) Any one of the natural hydrocarbons, including the hard, solid, brittle varieties called asphalt, the semisolid maltha and mineral tars, the oily petrolea, and even the light, volatile naphthas.
  3. (Australia, colloquial) Roads sealed with bitumen, as opposed to dirt roads.
  4. (Canada) Canadian deposits of extremely heavy crude oil.[1]

Synonyms

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Derived terms

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Translations

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Verb

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bitumen (third-person singular simple present bitumens, present participle bitumening, simple past and past participle bitumened)

  1. To cover or fill with bitumen.
    Synonym: bituminize
    • 1926, Rudyard Kipling, “The Prophet and the Country”, in Debits and Credits, →OCLC, page 155:
      another star reflected itself in the glassy black of the bitumened road
    • 1937, Lady Ethel Stefana Drower, Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, Brill Archive, →LCCN, page 122:
      The Litlata community have now built a mandi set in a pleasant garden, and to ensure the cleanliness of their yardna have bricked and bitumened the pool into which the water flows
    • 1984, Dennis Hancock, Wheels of Progress: History of the Road Transport Industry in Western Australia, 1829-1983[3], Access Press, →ISBN, page 145:
      Work is already under way to complete the bitumening of Western Australia's last unsurfaced stretch of Highway One, between Fitzroy Crossing and Hall's Creek.
    • 2013, Janice Cooper, Crossing the Divide: A History of Alpha and Jericho Districts, Boolarong Press, →ISBN, page 176:
      The development of water reticulation occurred in parallel with street work — forming, kerbing, channelling and bitumening.
    (The addition of quotations indicative of this usage is being sought:)

See also

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References

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  • bitumen”, in OneLook Dictionary Search.
  1. ^ “Archived copy”, in (Please provide the book title or journal name)[1], 2007 October 20 (last accessed), archived from the original on 20 October 2007

Dutch

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Etymology

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From Middle Dutch bitume, from Latin bitūmen, which later influenced the spelling.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˌbiˈty.mə(n)/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Hyphenation: bi‧tu‧men

Noun

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bitumen n (plural bitumina)

  1. bitumen, mineral pitch
    Synonyms: aardhars, aardpek, bergteer, jodenlijm
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Further reading

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  • bitumen” in Woordenlijst Nederlandse Taal – Officiële Spelling, Nederlandse Taalunie. [the official spelling word list for the Dutch language]

Indonesian

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Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Etymology

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From Dutch bitumen, from Middle Dutch bitume, from Latin bitūmen.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bitumèn (first-person possessive bitumenku, second-person possessive bitumenmu, third-person possessive bitumennya)

  1. bitumen

Alternative forms

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Further reading

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Latin

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Etymology

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From *bitū +‎ -men, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷétu (resin, gum), borrowed from an Osco-Umbrian language, traditionally assumed to be a Celtic one (compare Latin betulla), where the shift of * to b is regular.[1] The raising of the first vowel might come from the Osco-Umbrian variety, or have been developed in Latin, as occasionally happens after labials; compare firmus, vitulus.[2] Cognate with Scottish Gaelic bìth (resin, gum), English cud, Sanskrit जतु (jatu, lac, gum).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bitūmen n (genitive bitūminis); third declension

  1. mineral pitch, bitumen

Declension

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Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative bitūmen bitūmina
Genitive bitūminis bitūminum
Dative bitūminī bitūminibus
Accusative bitūmen bitūmina
Ablative bitūmine bitūminibus
Vocative bitūmen bitūmina
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Descendants

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Reflexes of an assumed variant *bittūmen:

  • Old Catalan: betum, bitum
  • Franco-Provençal: bèton, blèton, bleton
  • Occitan: betum
  • Old French: betun
    • French: béton (see there for further descendants)

Borrowings:

References

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  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) “*betu-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 64–65
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “bitūmen, -minis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 72–73

Polish

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Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin bitūmen.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /biˈtu.mɛn/
  • Rhymes: -umɛn
  • Syllabification: bi‧tu‧men

Noun

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bitumen m inan

  1. bitumen, blacktop
    Synonyms: bitum, bitumin

Declension

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adjectives
nouns
verb

Further reading

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  • bitumen in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • bitumen in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from German Bitumen, from Latin bitumen.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /biˈtu.men/, /bi.tuˈmen/

Noun

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bitumen n (uncountable)

  1. bitumen

Declension

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Further reading

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Spanish

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Etymology

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Learned borrowing from Latin bitūmen.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /biˈtumen/ [biˈt̪u.mẽn]
  • Rhymes: -umen
  • Syllabification: bi‧tu‧men

Noun

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bitumen m (plural bitúmenes)

  1. bitumen
    Synonym: betún

Further reading

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Swedish

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Swedish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sv

Noun

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bitumen n

  1. bitumen

Declension

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Declension of bitumen 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative bitumen bitumen, bitumenet, bituminet bitumen bitumenen
Genitive bitumens bitumens, bitumenets, bituminets bitumens bitumenens

See also

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References

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