The verb is derived from Late Middle English calcinen (“(alchemy, medicine) to heat (something) until it turns to powder; to change the nature of (something) by heating”) [and other forms], from Old French calciner (modern French calciner (“to calcinate; to calcine”)) and from its etymon Medieval Latin calcināre (“(alchemy) to burn like lime; to reduce to calx”), from Late Latin calcīna (“inorganic material containing calcium, lime”) + -āre (suffix forming present active infinitive forms of verbs). Calcīna is derived from Latin calcis, the genitive singular of calx (“chalk; limestone”), possibly from Ancient Greek χᾰ́λῐξ (khálix, “small stone, pebble; gravel, rubble”); further etymology unknown, possibly Pre-Greek .
The noun is derived from the verb.
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈkælsaɪn/, /-sɪn/, /kælˈsaɪn/
Audio (Southern England) (file) (file) (file)
- (General American) IPA(key): /ˈkælˌsaɪn/
- Rhymes: (one pronunciation) -aɪn
- Hyphenation: calc‧ine
calcine (third-person singular simple present calcines, present participle calcining, simple past and past participle calcined)
- (alchemy, historical) To heat (a substance) to remove its impurities and refine it.
- (chemistry) To heat (a substance) without melting in order to drive off water, etc., and to oxidize or reduce it; specifically, to decompose (carbonates) into oxides, and, especially, to heat (limestone) to form quicklime.
- 1601, C[aius] Plinius Secundus [i.e., Pliny the Elder], “[Book XXXVI.] The Wonderfull Operations of Fire: The Medicinable Properties that It Hath: And the Prodigious Significations Observed thereby.”, in Philemon Holland, transl., The Historie of the VVorld. Commonly Called, The Natvrall Historie of C. Plinivs Secvndus. […], 2nd tome, London: […] Adam Islip, published 1635, →OCLC, page 599:
- Fire […] burneth and calcineth ſtone, vvhereof is made that morter vvhich bindeth all vvork in maſonry.
- 1610 (first performance), Ben[jamin] Jonson, The Alchemist, London: […] Thomas Snodham, for Walter Burre, and are to be sold by Iohn Stepneth, […], published 1612, →OCLC; reprinted Menston, Yorkshire: The Scolar Press, 1970, →OCLC, Act II, scene iii:
- I ſent you of his fæces there, calcin'd. / Out of that calx, I'ha'vvonne the ſalt of Mercurie.
- (by extension) To heat (something) to dry and sterilize it.
- To purify or refine (something).
- To burn up (something) completely; to incinerate; hence, to destroy (something).
- Synonym: (obsolete) calcinize
- , George Herbert, “Easter”, in [Nicholas Ferrar], editor, The Temple: Sacred Poems, and Private Ejaculations, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: […] Thomas Buck and Roger Daniel; and are to be sold by Francis Green, […], →OCLC; reprinted London: Elliot Stock, […], 1885, →OCLC, page 33:
- [A]s his death calcined thee to duſt, / His life may make thee gold, and much more juſt.
- 1642, Tho[mas] Browne, “The First Part”, in Religio Medici. […], 4th edition, London: […] E. Cotes for Andrew Crook […], published 1656, →OCLC, section 50, page 108:
- I vvould gladly knovv hovv Moſes vvith an actuall fire calcin'd or burnt the Golden Calfe unto povvder, for that myſticall metall of Gold, vvhoſe ſolary and celeſtiall nature I admire, expoſed unto the violence of fire, grovveth onely hot and liquifies, but conſumeth not: […]
- 1668, John Denham, “The Progress of Learning”, in Poems and Translations, with The Sophy, London: […] [John Macock] for H[enry] Herringman […], →OCLC, page 181:
- Fiery diſputes, that Union have calcin'd, / Almoſt as many minds as men vve find, / And vvhen that flame finds combuſtible Earth, / VVhence Fatuus fires and Meteors take their birth, / Legions of Sects, and Inſects come in throngs; / To name them all, vvould tire a hundred tongues.
- 1855, Robert Browning, “‘Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came.’”, in Men and Women […], volume I, London: Chapman and Hall, […], →OCLC, stanza 11, page 139:
- It nothing skills: I cannot help my case: / The Judgment's fire alone can cure this place, / Calcine its clods and set my prisoners free.
- 1877, Alfred Tennyson, Harold: A Drama, London: Henry S. King & Co., →OCLC, Act III, scene i, page 74:
- […] He fain had calcined all Northumbria / To one black ash, but that they patriot passion / Siding with our great Council against Tostig, / Out-passion'd his!
- (intransitive, chemistry) Of a substance: to undergo heating so as to oxidize it.
- a. 1728 (date written), Isaac Newton, “[The Third Book of Opticks.] [Qu[estion] 25. Are there not other original Properties of the Rays of Light, besides those already described?]”, in Opticks: Or, A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light. […], 4th edition, London: […] William Innys […], published 1730, →OCLC, page 329:
- This Cryſtal is a pellucid fiſſile Stone, clear as Water or Cryſtal of the Rock, and without Colour; enduring a red Heat without loſing its tranſparency, and in a very ſtrong Heat calcining without Fuſion.
|present tense||past tense|
|2nd-person singular||calcine, calcinest†||calcined, calcinedst†|
|3rd-person singular||calcines, calcineth†||calcined|
- calcinate (obsolete)
- calcinator (obsolete)
- calcined (adjective)
- calcining (adjective, noun)
- calcinize (obsolete)
calcine (plural calcines)
- ^ “calcīnen, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ “calcine, v.”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2021.
- ^ “calcine, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- calcination on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- James A. H. Murray [et al.], editors (1884–1928), “Calcine”, in A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (Oxford English Dictionary), volume II (C), London: Clarendon Press, →OCLC, page 26.
- inflection of calciner:
- inflection of calcinar:
- inflection of calcinar: