calculus

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

calculus (countable and uncountable, plural calculi or calculuses)

  1. (dated, countable) Calculation; computation.
  2. (countable, mathematics) Any formal system in which symbolic expressions are manipulated according to fixed rules.
    lambda calculus
    predicate calculus
  3. (uncountable, often definite, the calculus) Differential calculus and integral calculus considered as a single subject; analysis.
  4. (countable, medicine) A stony concretion that forms in a bodily organ.
    renal calculus ( = kidney stone)
  5. (uncountable, dentistry) Deposits of calcium phosphate salts on teeth.
  6. (countable) A decision-making method, especially one appropriate for a specialised realm.
    • 2008 December 16, “Cameron calls for bankers’ ‘day of reckoning’”, in Financial Times:
      The Tory leader refused to state how many financiers he thought should end up in jail, saying: “There is not some simple calculus."

SynonymsEdit

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See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • calculus in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From calx, calcis (limestone, game counter) +‎ -ulus (diminutive suffix).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

calculus m (genitive calculī); second declension

  1. diminutive of calx
  2. pebble, stone
  3. reckoning, calculating, calculation
  4. a piece in the latrunculi game

DeclensionEdit

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative calculus calculī
Genitive calculī calculōrum
Dative calculō calculīs
Accusative calculum calculōs
Ablative calculō calculīs
Vocative calcule calculī

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DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • calculus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • calculus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • calculus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • calculus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to go through accounts, make a valuation of a thing: ad calculos vocare aliquid (Amic. 16. 58)