- (anatomy) That part of the skull consisting of the bones enclosing the brain, but not including the bones of the face or jaw.
- Synonyms: braincase, neurocranium
- Hyponyms: calvarium, ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid
- 1858, Henry Gray, “The Skull”, in Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, page 19:
- The Skull is divided into two parts, the Cranium and the Face. The Cranium is composed of eight bones; […]
- 1899 Feb, Joseph Conrad, “The Heart of Darkness”, in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, page 201:
- ‘I always ask leave, in the interests of science, to measure the crania of those going out there,’ he said.
- 1908, J. McFadyean, “Part I: Osteology and Arthrology”, in The Comparative Anatomy of the Domesticated Animals, page 165:
- The cranium of the fowl is composed of the same elements as are present in the mammalian cranium, save that there is no interparietal.
- 2010, Elaine N. Marieb; Katja Hoehn, “Chapter 7 "The Skeleton"”, in Human Anatomy and Physiology, 8th edition, page 200:
- The cranial bones, or cranium (kra′ne-um), enclose and protect the fragile brain and furnish attachment sites for head and neck muscles.
- (anthropology, informal) The upper portion of the skull, including the neurocranium and facial bones, but not including the jawbone (mandible).
- 2014, Emma L. Brown; Ronald A. Dixon; Jason W. Birkett, “The Discolouration of Human Teeth from Archaeological Contexts: Elemental Analysis of a Black Tooth from a Roman Cranium Recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK”, in Journal of Anthropology, volume 2014, DOI:10.1155/2014/859153:
- In this study, the cranium recovered from the River Witham in Lincoln exhibited a black metallic staining on the surfaces of the teeth.
- (informal) Synonym of .
(anatomy) braincase or neurocranium
skull — see skull
- “cranium”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
- “cranium”, in Merriam–Webster Online Dictionary.
- (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈkraː.ni.um/, [ˈkräːniʊ̃ˑ]
- (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈkra.ni.um/, [ˈkräːnium]
Second-declension noun (neuter).
1Found in older Latin (until the Augustan Age).