EgyptianEdit

PronunciationEdit

 

VerbEdit

gmm

 3ae inf.

  1. (transitive) To (seek and) find. [since the Pyramid Texts]
    • c. 1550 BCE – 1295 BCE, Great Hymn to Osiris (Stela of Amenmose, Louvre C 286) lines 14–15:
      stt
      H8
      xAxt
      H_SPACE
      nDnw t
      Y1
      snA40sHHt
      D54
      swwD35
      t t
      bg
      g
      A7
      z
      pXr
      r
      t D54
      N17
      N21 Z1
      p
      n
      mHAiit
      nDs
      D35
      x
      n
      xnD54
      n
      z
      D35
      gm
      mtwssww
      ꜣst ꜣḫt nḏt sn.s ḥḥt sw jwtt b(ꜣ)gg.s pẖrt tꜣ pn m ḥꜣyt nj ḫn.n.s nj gm.tw.s sw
      capable Isis who saved her brother, who sought him without wearying, who circled this land in mourning, not alighting so long as he was not found
  2. (transitive, also used with a genitive or r) To find a way to go.
  3. (with a genitive) To find a way to do something. [Kushite period]
  4. (transitive) To find a way out (of difficulties, etc.). [Old Kingdom]
  5. (transitive) To discover, find, locate.
    • c. 2000 BCE – 1900 BCE, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor (pHermitage/pPetersburg 1115) lines 47–48:
      gmmn&A1 dAbM43N33C
      Z2
      iAr
      r
      t
      D5
      N33C
      Z2
      imiAqtHnZ3Anb
      t
      A51stY2
      gm.n.j dꜣbw jꜣrrt jm jꜣqt nbt špst
      I found figs and grapes there, and splendid vegetables of all kinds.
  6. (transitive) To come across, happen upon.
  7. (transitive) To meet (someone).
  8. (transitive) To ascertain, discern, recognize.
    • c. 2000 BCE – 1900 BCE, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor (pHermitage/pPetersburg 1115) lines 60–62:
      k
      f
      S28n&A1 HrZ1A1gmmn&A1 Hf
      A
      wI14pwiwfmiiit
      D54
      kf.n.j ḥr.j gm.n.j ḥfꜣw pw jw.f m jjt
      When I uncovered my face, I found it was a snake. He was coming!
  9. (transitive) To determine or find to be in a particular state.
    • c. 2112–2063 BCE (reign of Intef II), Funerary stele of Rediu-Khnum from his tomb at Dendera (UE 6) (Cairo CG 20543), line A13–A14:[2][3]
      sr
      w
      d
      T12
      n
      gm
      t n
      w
      z
      T
      nDs
      V14
      z
      Tz
      n
      gm
      t n
      f
      d
      q
      V1mH
      Y1
      n
      gm
      t n
      i A
      T
      srwd.n(.j) gmt.n(.j) wzṯ(.w) ṯz.n(.j) gmt.n(.j) fdq(.w) mḥ.n(.j) gmt.n(.j) jꜣṯ(.w)
      I made firm what I found dilapidated; I joined together what I found cut apart; I replenished what I found injured.
    • c. 2000 BCE – 1900 BCE, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor (pHermitage/pPetersburg 1115) line 157:
      aHaa
      n
      SmmD54kwA1rsmiitA2stgmmn&A1 swWr
      x
      Y2st
      ꜥḥꜥ.n šm.kw r smjt st gm.n.j sw rḫ st
      Then I went to report it but found him (already) aware of it.
  10. (transitive) To officially establish or determine; to judge, to rule.
    • c. 1550 BCE – 1295 BCE, Great Hymn to Osiris (Stela of Amenmose, Louvre C 286) line 18:
      gm
      M
      n
      t w
      G5xrwf
      mAa
      a
      wr
      a
      wn
      f
      tO44Z1n
      t
      t
      f
      gm.n.tw ḥr ḫrw.f mꜣꜥ.w rdjw n.f jꜣwt nt (j)t.f
      Horus was found justified; the office of his father was given to him.
  11. (transitive) To diagnose.
  12. (transitive) To calculate (a numerical result).
  13. (transitive) To achieve, receive (a position).
  14. (transitive) To devise (something).
  15. (intransitive, of a limb) To know how to use properly.
  16. (catenative, generally negated) To be able to.
  17. (transitive) To control a land.

Usage notesEdit

This verb is often used with a following adverb clause introduced by a stative without a preceding subject; the subject of this stative is then ordinarily identical with the object of gmj.

InflectionEdit

Alternative formsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Demotic: gm

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 42
  2. ^ González León, Daniel (2018) “La estela de Rediukhnum de Dendera y la reorganización administrativa del Estado egipcio a finales del III milenio a.C.” in Revista Del Instituto De Historia Antigua Oriental, volume 19, pages 49–79
  3. ^ Lichtheim, Miriam (1988) Ancient Egyptian Autobiographies Chiefly of the Middle Kingdom: A Study and an Anthology, pages 42–46 and plate I