See also: kamanās




A vowel assimilation assimilation (e to a) variant of an old en-stem word — with an extra final -ekamene “spruce or oak bark,” figuratively also “sleigh” (in the plural kamenes, apparently because in ancient times heavy loads were transported over peeled-off tree bark as if over runners), from Proto-Baltic *kam-, from the ablauted form *kom- of Proto-Indo-European *kem “to squeeze, to compress,” therefore also “bent, round” (whence Latvian dialectal čems, kams). Cognates include Lithuanian kamíenas, kamė́nas ‎(tree trunk), kãmanos ‎(bridle), Czech kmen ‎(stem, trunk), Polish kien ‎(stump, bar, log), Gothic 𐌷𐌹𐌼𐌹𐌽𐍃 ‎(himins, sky, firmament), Old Norse himenn, German Himmel, Dutch hemel, Tajik dialectal kamali ‎(sleigh runners).[1]




kamanas f (4th declension)

  1. (only plural) sleigh (vehicle on runners pulled by animals over snow or ice)
    jūgt kamanās — to harness (a horse) to (lit. in) a sleigh
    braukt ar kamanām — to go by, on (a) sleigh
    braukt kamanās — to ride a sleigh
    briežu kamanas — (rein)deer sleigh
    suņu kamanas — dog sled
    kamanu segasleigh blanket
    zem kamanu sliecēm gurkstēja sniegs — the snow crunched under the sleigh runners
    vedējs un milicis Kaņeps izlēca no kamanām — the driver and police agent Kaņeps jumped out of the sleigh


Usage notesEdit

The original singular form kamana is attested only in folk songs.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ “kamanas” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7