See also: Liber, Liber., and libër

Contents

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Latin. See libel.

NounEdit

liber ‎(countable and uncountable, plural libers)

  1. (botany) The inner bark of plants, next to the wood. It usually contains a large proportion of woody, fibrous cells, and is the part from which the fibre of the plant is obtained, as that of hemp, etc.

Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.


CzechEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

liber

  1. genitive plural of libra

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

liber

  1. genitive plural of libero

FrenchEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

liber m ‎(plural libers)

  1. bast (of a tree)
  2. book

AnagramsEdit

External linksEdit


LatinEdit

Latin Wikipedia has articles on:

Wikipedia la

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Latin loeber, from Proto-Italic *louðeros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ-er-os, from *h₁lewdʰ- ‎(people).

Cognates include Ancient Greek ἐλεύθερος ‎(eleútheros), Sanskrit रोधति ‎(rodhati), Dutch lieden, German Leute, Russian люди ‎(ljudi, people).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

līber m ‎(feminine lībera, neuter līberum, comparative līberior, superlative līberrimus); first/second declension

  1. free, unrestricted
    • Seneca Minor, Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium, Epistula XCII
      Nemo liber est qui corpori servit.
      No one is free who is a slave to his body.
    • Captivi ("the captives") by Plautus (English and Latin text)
      Haud istuc rogo. Fuistin liber? - Fui.
      That isn’t what I’m asking about. Were you a freeman? - I was.
InflectionEdit

First/second declension, nominative masculine singular in -er.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative līber lībera līberum līberī līberae lībera
genitive līberī līberae līberī līberōrum līberārum līberōrum
dative līberō līberō līberīs
accusative līberum līberam līberum līberōs līberās lībera
ablative līberō līberā līberō līberīs
vocative līber lībera līberum līberī līberae lībera
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Probably from an older form *luber, from Proto-Indo-European *leup- ‎(to peel, break off). Cognate to Old Church Slavonic лѹбъ ‎(lubŭ, bark of a tree) and Lithuanian lùpti ‎(to peel, to shell).[1] See also English leaf, lobby, lodge, Ancient Greek λέπω ‎(lépō, to peel), λέπος ‎(lépos, peel), λεπτός ‎(leptós, peel).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

liber m ‎(genitive librī); second declension

  1. book
  2. the inner bark of a tree
InflectionEdit

Second declension, nominative singular in -er.

Case Singular Plural
nominative liber librī
genitive librī librōrum
dative librō librīs
accusative librum librōs
ablative librō librīs
vocative liber1 librī

1May also be libre.

Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Non-lemma forms.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

līber

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of lībō

ReferencesEdit

  • līber, adj. in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • līber, n. in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • liber in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • liber” in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • Cicero's philosophical writings: Ciceronis de philosophia libri
    • to write a book: librum scribere, conscribere
    • to compose, compile a book: librum conficere, componere (De Sen. 1. 2)
    • to publish a book: librum edere (Div. 1. 3. 6)
    • to open a book: librum evolvere, volvere
    • to dedicate a book to some one: librum mittere ad aliquem (Fin. 1. 3. 8)
    • the title of a book: index, inscriptio libri
    • to be engaged on a book: librum in manibus habere (Acad. 1. 1. 2)
    • to take up a book in one's hands: librum in manus sumere
    • to lay down a book (vid. sect. XII. 3, note vestem deponere...): librum de manibus ponere
    • to polish, finish a work with the greatest care: perpolire, limare diligenter librum, opus
    • (ambiguous) to make extracts from Cicero's writings: aliquid, multa ex Ciceronis libris excerpere (not excerpere librum)
    • to furnish a book with notes, additional extracts, marks of punctuation: librum annotare, interpolare, distinguere
    • (ambiguous) in the time of the Republic: libera re publica
    • (ambiguous) to accept as one's own child; to make oneself responsible for its nurture and education: tollere or suscipere liberos
    • (ambiguous) to treat as one's own child: aliquem in liberorum loco habere
    • (ambiguous) the teaching of children: disciplina (institutio) puerilis (not liberorum)
    • (ambiguous) the work when translated; translation (concrete): liber (scriptoris) conversus, translatus
    • (ambiguous) the book is entitled 'Laelius': liber inscribitur Laelius (Off. 2. 9. 30)
    • (ambiguous) Cicero says in his 'Laelius.: Cicero dicit in Laelio (suo) or in eo (not suo) libro, qui inscribitur Laelius
    • (ambiguous) there exists a book on..: est liber de...
    • (ambiguous) the book is still extant: exstat liber (notice the order of the words)
    • (ambiguous) the book has been lost: liber intercidit, periit
    • (ambiguous) a book which has been entirely lost sight of: liber deperditus
    • (ambiguous) a lost book of which fragments (relliquiae, not fragmenta) remain: liber perditus
    • (ambiguous) a book which is attributed to some one: liber qui fertur alicuius
    • (ambiguous) the book is attributed to an unknown writer: liber refertur ad nescio quem auctorem
    • (ambiguous) the book treats of friendship: hic liber est de amicitia (not agit) or hoc libro agitur de am.
    • (ambiguous) the book contains something... (not continet aliquid): libro continetur aliquid
    • (ambiguous) the book contains something... (not continet aliquid): libro scriptor complexus est aliquid
    • (ambiguous) at the end of the book: in extremo libro (Q. Fr. 2. 7. 1)
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged on a book: liber mihi est in manibus
    • (ambiguous) the book, speech can easily be obtained: liber, oratio in manibus est
    • (ambiguous) a carefully written book: liber accurate, diligenter scriptus
    • (ambiguous) to make extracts from Cicero's writings: aliquid, multa ex Ciceronis libris excerpere (not excerpere librum)
    • (ambiguous) a very charming book: liber plenus delectationis
    • (ambiguous) the frank but defiant demeanour of Socrates (before his judges): libera contumacia Socratis (Tusc. 1. 29. 71)
    • (ambiguous) the Republic: libera res publica, liber populus
    • (ambiguous) an independent spirit: a partibus rei publicae animus liber (Sall. Cat. 4. 2)
    • (ambiguous) to enslave a free people: liberum populum servitute afficere
    • (ambiguous) to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • (ambiguous) the free men are sold as slaves: libera corpora sub corona (hasta) veneunt (B. G. 3. 16. 4)
    • (ambiguous) with wife and child: cum uxoribus et liberis
  • liber in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • liber in Samuel Ball Platner (1929), Thomas Ashby, editor, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press
  • liber in William Smith, editor (1848) A Dictionary of Greek Biography and Mythology, London: John Murray
  • liber in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  1. ^ “libro” in: Alberto Nocentini, Alessandro Parenti, “l'Etimologico — Vocabolario della lingua italiana”, Le Monnier, 2010, ISBN 978-88-00-20781-2

RomanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowing from Latin liber, French libre (19th century).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

liber

  1. free, at liberty

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

Read in another language