See also: Murata and murata


Alternative formsEdit


Hinde (1904) records muratta and munduitu as equivalents of English friend in “Jogowini dialect” of Kikuyu.[1]


The first a is pronounced long.[2][3]
As for Tonal Class, Armstrong (1940) classifies this term into mbori class which includes mbũri, ikinya (pl. makinya), itimũ, kĩhaato, maguta, mbembe, mũgeka, nyaga, ũhoro, riitho, riũa, rũrĩmĩ, Kamau (man's name), etc.[4] Benson (1964) classifies this term into Class 3 with a disyllabic stem, together with kĩhaato, mbembe, kiugo, and so on. Yukawa (1981) classifies this term into a group including bũrũri (pl. mabũrũri), ikara, ikinya, itimũ, kanitha (pl. makanitha), kiugo, kĩhaato, maguta, mũgeka, mũkonyo, mwana, mbembe, mbũri, nyaga, riitho, riũa, rũrĩmĩ (pl. nĩmĩ), ũhoro (pl. mohoro), and so on.[5] Clements (1984) classifies this term into “HL class” corresponding to Armstrong's mbori class and Benson's disyllabic 3, together with mwana, mũgeka, and Kamau.[6]


mũrata class 1 (plural arata)

  1. friend[4][5]
    mũrata wakwa/waku/wake/witũ/wanyu/wao - my/thy/his or her/our/your/their friend
    arata akwa - my friends
  2. girlfriend[7]
    Synonym: mũhiki[7]


Related termsEdit


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Hinde, Hildegarde (1904). Vocabularies of the Kamba and Kikuyu languages of East Africa, pp. 26–27. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Barlow, A. Ruffell (1960). Studies in Kikuyu Grammar and Idiom, p. 234.
  3. ^ rata” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary, p. 372. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Armstrong, Lilias E. (1940). The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu. Rep. 1967. (Also in 2018 by Routledge).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Yukawa, Yasutoshi (1981). "A Tentative Tonal Analysis of Kikuyu Nouns: A Study of Limuru Dialect." In Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 22, 75–123.
  6. ^ Clements, George N. (1984). "Principles of tone assignment in Kikuyu." In Clements, G.N. and J.A. Goldsmith (eds.) Autosegmental studies in Bantu tone, pp. 281–339. Dordrecht: Mouton de Gruyter; Foris Publications. →ISBN
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Mugu, Muturi Anthony (2014). "Antonymy in Gĩkũyũ: a cognitive semantics approach."