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A bottle of Wray and Nephew white overproof rum

over- +‎ proof.



overproof (not comparable)

  1. Possessing a higher proportion of alcohol than proof spirit.
    Synonym: above proof
    Antonym: underproof
    • 1827, “One of the Old School” [pseudonym], chapter I, in Wine and Spirit Adulterators Unmasked, [], London: Printed for the author, by J. Robins and Co. [], OCLC 17801580, page 30:
      Leeward Island Rums are but seldom brought to this country at a higher rate of strength, than eight or ten per cent. overproof.
    • 1851, Arnold James Cooley, “ALCOHOL”, in The Book of Useful Knowledge: A Cyclopædia of Six Thousand Practical Receipts, and Collateral Information, including Medicine, Pharmacy, and Domestic Economy. [], New York, N.Y.: D. Appleton & Company, [], OCLC 794902853, page 35, column 1:
      In overproof spirit, the per centage overproof always represents the quantity of water it will take to reduce it to proof. By adding its per centage overproof to 100, we obtain a number, which, multiplied by any number of gallons, and divided by 100, will give the exact number of proof gallons which is contained in the given quantity of spirit of that strength.
    • 1922 November 25, A[rthur] M[urray] Chisholm, “A Thousand a Plate”, in Western Story Magazine, volume XXX, number 4, New York, N.Y.: Street & Smith Corporation, OCLC 11910542, chapter II, page 93, column 2:
      Now the rum, as has been said, was criminally overproof, and they had had no intoxicants for a long time. And so a couple of stiff drinks produced a beautiful and generous expansion of soul. The mean cabin became larger, the fire warmer and more cheerful, and life generally of a more roseate hue. They began to feel the prodigal Thanksgiving spirit, and to regret their limited opportunities for satisfying it.
    • 2015, Emma Stokes, “Overproof”, in The Periodic Table of Cocktails, London: Ebury Press, Ebury Publishing, →ISBN, page 139:
      The Zombie, created by Don the Beachcomber, first appeared in 1934 as a hangover cure. [] The rule of no more than two per person was in place from the moment of its conception, due to the sheer amount of booze in the drink, not to mention the overproof rum float on top, and this still remains in place in many venues to this day.


  • Abbreviation: OP



overproof (plural overproofs)

  1. A spirit possessing a higher proportion of alcohol than proof spirit.
    • 1806, Peter Jonas, “Method of Ascertaining the Strength of Spiritous Liquors by Clarke’s Hydrometer”, in The Genuine Art of Gauging Made Easy and Familiar; Exhibiting All the Principal Methods Actually Practised by the Officers of His Majesty’s Revenue of Excise and Customs: [...], London: Printed [by C[harles] Whittingham] for Dring and Fage, [], OCLC 57127637, page 367:
      [E]ach degree of the hydrometer, when at or near proof, is about a quart in a hundred gallons stronger or weaker, as the hydrometer vibrates under or over the silver speck or sight on the index or upper stem; at the intermediate or strong overproofs, is about a pint in ditto; and at the low underproofs is about three pints in ditto.
    • 1841 February–November, Charles Dickens, “Barnaby Rudge”, in Master Humphrey’s Clock, volume II, London: Chapman & Hall, [], OCLC 633494058, chapter 54, page 249:
      Bustle, Jack, bustle. Show us the best—the very best—the over-proof that you keep for your own drinking, Jack!
    • [1875 February, “The Month”, in W. N. Potter, editor, The City of London Chess Magazine, volume II, London: Longmans, Green, & Co., published 1876, OCLC 4114975, pages 5–6:
      At a Committee of the City of London Chess Club, held on the 18th of January, it was decided to set on foot three even tourneys. In these contests the competitors in each of the tourneys play upon even terms, and they all play together. Tournament No. 1 will be of the Pawn and move strength, and there will be included in the same the strongest members of the Pawn and two moves class. Tournament No. 2 will consist of the averae players of the last-named class, and to them will be added the overproofs of the Knight strength.]



overproof (third-person singular simple present overproofs, present participle overproofing, simple past and past participle overproofed)

  1. (transitive, baking) To proof (allow dough containing yeast to rise) excessively.
    Antonym: underproof
    • 1962 August 8, “Yeast Doughs”, in Pastry Baking (Department of the Army Technical Manual; TM 10-411; Department of the Air Force Manual; AFM 146-11), Washington, D.C.: Departments of the Army and the Air Force; U.S. Government Printing Office, OCLC 757685324, part 2 (Production of Pastry Items), section IV (Faults, Causes, and Corrections), paragraph 173, page 134, column 2:
      The product may have an open or irregular grain because of the following: a. Underproofing or Overproofing the Dough. b. Too Little Fermentation. c. Baking in an Oven That is Too Cool.
    • 2008, Cindy Mushet, “Yeast Breads and Rolls”, in The Art and Soul of Baking, Kansas City, Mo.: Andrews McMeel Publishing, →ISBN, page 70:
      [I]f the loaf is overproofed, it will not rise or brown in the oven and will taste of alcohol. Usually, even the act of moving the overproofed loaf into the oven will cause it to collapse and flatten. If this happens, punch down the loaf, reshape it, and proof again. Although the flavor will be slightly compromised, the loaf will be saved. Note: You can only save it once, and this works best if the dough is overproofed by no more than 30 to 45 minutes. If the dough has been forgotten for hours, it's hopeless.
    • 2014, Tabitha Alterman, “Yeast and Wild Yeast (Sourdough) Breads: Fun with Fermentation”, in Whole Grain Baking Made Easy: Craft Delicious, Healthful Breads, Pastries, Desserts, and More: Including a Comprehensive Guide to Grinding Grains, Minneapolis, Minn.: Voyageur Press, Quarto Publishing Group USA, →ISBN, page 99, column 1:
      Learn when dough is ready to be shaped. When the first rise is complete, dough should feel airy and have a lightness to it. [] With time, you will learn when the dough's lightness is good and be able to catch it before it overproofs.

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