From Late Middle English perpetuate (adjective only), borrowed from Latin perpetuātus (“perpetuated”) + English -ate (suffix meaning ‘characterized by [the specified thing]’ forming adjectives, and ‘to act in [the specified manner]’ forming verbs). Perpetuātus is the perfect passive participle of perpetuō (“to cause to continue uninterruptedly, to proceed with continually, to make perpetual, perpetuate”), from perpetuus (“everlasting, perpetual”) (from per- (prefix meaning ‘very’) + petō (“to ask, request; to look for; to make for (somewhere)”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *peth₂- (“to spread out; to fly”)) + -uus (suffix forming adjectives)) + -ō (suffix forming regular first-conjugation verbs).
- Catalan perpetuar
- Italian perpetuare
- Old French perpetué (adjective) (Middle French perpetué (adjective)); Middle French perpétuer (verb) (modern French perpétuer (verb))
- Old Occitan perpetuar
- Portuguese perpetuar
- Spanish perpetuar
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /pəˈpɛt͡ʃʊət/, /pəˈpɛtjʊət/
Audio (UK) (file)
- (General American) IPA(key): /pɚˈpɛt͡ʃəˌweɪt/, /-t͡ʃəwət/
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /pəˈpɛt͡ʃʊeɪt/, /-ˈpɛtjueɪt/
Audio (RP) (file)
- (General American) IPA(key): /pɚˈpɛt͡ʃəˌweɪt/
- Hyphenation: per‧pet‧u‧ate
- (archaic except poetic) Perpetual, or made perpetual; continued for an indefinite time.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:eternal
- Antonyms: see Thesaurus:ephemeral
- 1801, Robert Southey, “The First Book”, in Thalaba the Destroyer, volume I, London: […] [F]or T[homas] N[orton] Longman and O[wen] Rees, […], by Biggs and Cottle, […], →OCLC, page 24:
- The trees and flowers remain / By Nature's care perpetuate and self-sown.
- 1922, Thomas Hardy, “The Children and Sir Nameless”, in Late Lyrics and Earlier with Many Other Verses, London: Macmillan and Co., […], →OCLC, stanza 2, page 134:
- To be perpetuate for my mightiness / Sculpture must image me when I am gone.
perpetuate (third-person singular simple present perpetuates, present participle perpetuating, simple past and past participle perpetuated)
- (transitive) To make (something) perpetual; to make (something) continue for an indefinite time; also, to preserve (something) from extinction or oblivion.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:eternalize
- 1593, Tho[mas] Nashe, “To the Most Honored, and Vertvovs Beavtified Ladie, the Ladie Elizabeth Carey: […]”, in Christs Teares Over Ierusalem. […], London: […] Iames Roberts, and are to be solde by Andrewe Wise, […], →OCLC:
- To the ſupportiue perpetuating of your canonized reputation, vvholie this booke haue I deſtined.
- 1619, Francis Rous, “Of Prayer”, in The Arte of Happines. […], London: […] W[illiam] Stansby for Iohn Parker, […], →OCLC, pages 342–343:
- Noah gaue a ſacrifice of praiſe for his deliuerie from the floud, and God being praiſed for that one deliuerance, perpetuateth his benefit, and promiſeth an euerlaſting deliuerance to the earth from any more flouds.
- 1656, James Harrington, “Epitome of the Whole Common-wealth”, in The Commonwealth of Oceana, London: […] [John Streater] for D[aniel] Pakeman, […], →OCLC, page 276:
- The ſecond part of the Tropick, perpetuateth the Council of State, by the election of five Knights, out of the firſt Region of the Senate, to be the firſt Region of that Council, conſiſting of fifteen Knights, five in every Region.
- 1711, James Drake, “To Dr. Garth, on the Fourth Edition of His Incomparable Poem, The Dispensary; Occasion’d by Some Lines in the Satyr against Wit”, in Thomas Brown, compiler, The Fourth Volume of the Works of Mr. Thomas Brown, […], London: […] Sam[uel] Briscoe, and sold by J[ohn] Morphew […], and Ja[mes] Woodward […], →OCLC, page 199:
- Then Bl——re ſhall this Favour ovve to thee, / That thou perpetuat'ſt his Memory.
- 1712 February 16 (Gregorian calendar), Joseph Addison, “TUESDAY, February 5, 1711–1712”, in The Spectator, number 293; republished in Alexander Chalmers, editor, The Spectator; a New Edition, […], volume III, New York, N.Y.: D[aniel] Appleton & Company, 1853, →OCLC, page 463:
- I am very well pleased with a medal which was struck by Queen Elizabeth, a little after the defeat of the invincible armada, to perpetuate the memory of that extraordinary event.
- 1790 November, Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, and on the Proceedings in Certain Societies in London Relative to that Event. […], London: […] J[ames] Dodsley, […], →OCLC, page 78:
- The republic of Paris will endeavour indeed to compleat the debauchery of the army, and illegally to perpetuate the aſſembly, vvithout reſort to its constituents, as the means of continuing its deſpotiſm.
- 1854, Dante [Alighieri], “Canto I”, in C[harles] B[agot] Cayley, transl., Dante’s Divine Comedy. The Paradise: Translated in the Original Ternary Rhyme, volume III, London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, →OCLC, lines 75–78, page 5:
- Thou know'st, who by thy light upliftedst me, / When the revolvement, thou perpetuatest, / Desired One, attentive made me through / The harmony, thou blend'st and alternatest.
- 1996, Lane V. Sunderland, “The Constitution, The Federalist, and Constitutional Principles”, in Popular Government and the Supreme Court: Securing the Public Good and Private Rights, Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, →ISBN, part I (Theoretical Foundations of the Constitution), page 56:
- [T]he Constitution's doctrine of enumerated powers and federalism also plays a role in perpetuating individual rights.
- 2007, Harry L. Gracey, “Kindergarten as Academic Boot Camp”, in James M. Henslin, editor, Down to Earth Sociology, 14th edition, New York, N.Y.; London: Free Press, →ISBN, part VIII (Social Institutions), page 447:
- The educational institution is, then, one of the ways in which society is perpetuated through the systematic socialization of the young, while the nature of the society which is being perpetuated—its organization and operation, its value, beliefs, and ways of living—are determined by the primary institutions.
- (law) To record (the testimony of a witness) which may be lost before a matter comes to trial.
- 1768, William Blackstone, “Of Proceedings in the Courts of Equity”, in Commentaries on the Laws of England, book III (Of Private Wrongs), Oxford, Oxfordshire: […] Clarendon Press, →OCLC, page 450:
- If vvitneſſes to a diſputable fact are old and infirm, it is very uſual to file a bill to perpetuate the teſtimony of thoſe vvitneſſes, although no ſuit is depending; for, it may be, a man's antagoniſt only vvaits for the death of ſome of them to begin his ſuit. This is moſt frequent vvhen lands are deviſed by vvill avvay from the heir at lavv; and the deviſee, in order to perpetuate the teſtimony of the vvitneſſes to ſuch vvill, exhibits a bill in chancery againſt the heir, […]
- 1822 December 17, John Leach, Vice-Chancellor, “Dew v. Clarke”, in The English Reports, volume LVII (Vice-Chancellor’s Court, volume II), Edinburgh: William Green & Sons; London: Stevens & Sons, published October 1905, →OCLC, page 46:
- It appears to me that this bill makes out no case for perpetuating testimony. Although it was true that the validity of the will could not, by reason of the lease, be immediately tried with the devises in trust, yet it may be immediately tried by an action for rent against the tenant. Testimony can be perpetuated only where by no means the Plaintiff can presently assert his title to the property.
- (transitive) To prolong the existence of (something) by repetition; to reinforce.
- Synonym: continue
- 1852, Moses Stuart, “Introduction”, in A Commentary on the Book of Proverbs, New York, N.Y.: M. W. Dodd, […], →OCLC, § 17 (Specimen of Arabic Proverbs), paragraph 64, page 116:
- He who praiseth obscurity perpetuateth it.
- 2010, Rodney Lee Smith, “The Twenty-one Principles of a Lie”, in The 21 Principles of a Lie: The Logic of the Illogical, Mustang, Okla.: Tate Publishing & Enterprises, →ISBN, page 169:
- [T]he major players […] have the most to either gain from perpetuating the lie to morally or ethically acknowledge the wrong of their actions.
|present tense||past tense|
|2nd-person singular||perpetuate, perpetuatest†||perpetuated, perpetuatedst†|
|3rd-person singular||perpetuates, perpetuateth†||perpetuated|
- perpetuated (adjective)
- perpetuating (adjective, noun)
- perpetuable (rare)
- perpetualist (US, historical)
- perpetual motion
- perpetualty (obsolete)
- perpetuana (archaic, chiefly historical)
- perpetuant (obsolete, rare)
- perpetuously (rare)
- perpetuous (rare)
- ^ Compare “perpetuate, adj.”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022.
- ^ Compare “perpetuate, v.”, in OED Online , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2022; “perpetuate, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
- perpetual (disambiguation) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- perpetuate at OneLook Dictionary Search
- inflection of perpetuare:
perpetuate f pl
- second-person singular voseo imperative of perpetuar combined with te