See also: súmmum




  1. dative of summur: some



summum m (plural summums)

  1. summit, apogee, acme



Noun use of neuter of summus.



summum n (genitive summī); second declension

  1. top
  2. summit


Second-declension noun (neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative summum summa
Genitive summī summōrum
Dative summō summīs
Accusative summum summa
Ablative summō summīs
Vocative summum summa


  • Catalan: súmmum
  • Old French: som, somet
  • Spanish: somo, súmmum



  1. nominative neuter singular of summus


  • summum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • summum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • summum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) a gentle ascent: collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)
    • (ambiguous) the surface of the water: summa aqua
    • (ambiguous) in the height of summer, depth of winter: summa aestate, hieme
    • (ambiguous) the position is very critical: res in summo discrimine versatur
    • (ambiguous) to be entirely destitute; to be a beggar: in summa egestate or mendicitate esse
    • (ambiguous) to be bound by the closest ties of friendship: artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: dignitas est summa in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: summa dignitate praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to praise, extol, commend a person: (maximis, summis) laudibus efferre aliquem or aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to have reached the highest pinnacle of eminence: summa gloria florere
    • (ambiguous) to bring to the highest perfection: ad summum perducere
    • (ambiguous) to attain perfection: ad perfectionem, (ad summum) pervenire
    • (ambiguous) ideal perfection: absolutio et perfectio (not summa perfectio)
    • (ambiguous) to be an ardent student of..: summo studio in litteris versari
    • (ambiguous) to possess rich mental endowments: summo ingenio praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) unanimously: uno, communi, summo or omnium consensu (Tusc. 1. 15. 35)
    • (ambiguous) the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • (ambiguous) a master-piece of classical work: opus summo artificio[TR1] factum
    • (ambiguous) to depict a thing in lively colours: summo colore aliquid illustrare
    • (ambiguous) to consider virtue the highest good: summum bonum in virtute ponere
    • (ambiguous) to honour the gods with all due ceremonial (very devoutly): deum rite (summa religione) colere
    • (ambiguous) to stand in very intimate relations to some one: summa necessitudine aliquem contingere
    • (ambiguous) to be in severe pecuniary straits: in summa difficultate nummaria versari (Verr. 2. 28. 69)
    • (ambiguous) the welfare of the state: summa res publica (or summa rei publicae)
    • (ambiguous) of high rank: summo loco natus
    • (ambiguous) high and low: summi (et) infimi (Rep. 1. 34. 53)
    • (ambiguous) to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • (ambiguous) the command-in-chief: summa belli, imperii (B. G. 2. 4. 7)
    • (ambiguous) the position is critical: res est in periculo, in summo discrimine
    • (ambiguous) deep peace: summa pax
    • (ambiguous) legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).