Last modified on 9 November 2013, at 13:51



This is the main Latvian verb conjugation template. It has the main principal forms of the verb and the conjugation type as its input, and a conjugation table as its output.

First of all, the named parameter {{{pol}}} identifies a verb as positive or negative (if negative, {{{pol}}} = ne; if positive, {{{pol}}} is left undefined). If the verb is negative, then the positive infinitive must be indicated with the parameter {{{inf}}} (i.e., for netulkot "not translate", {{{pol}}} = ne and {{{inf}}} = tulkot).

The basic parameter is {{{3}}}, which contains the conjugation type. Values: {{{3}}} = 1st (first [short] conjugation), 2nd (second [long] conjugation, or 3rd (third [mixed] conjugation). A second basic parameter is {{{4}}}, in that if it is set to "only-3rd", then only the third persons will be displayed (the others will be replaced with a long dash); if it is not "only-3rd", then the following is valid:

If {{{3}}} = 2nd, then:

  • {{{1}}} = verb stem (without the thematic vowel);
  • {{{2}}} = thematic vowel;
  • {{{4}}} (optional): for verbs that can be conjugated both as * 2nd and 3rd conjugation verbs, this parameter must be set to "3rd".

If {{{3}}} = 3rd, then:

  • {{{1}}} = verb stem (without the thematic vowel, and, for alternating palatalizing verbs, without the final consonant);
  • {{{2}}} = thematic vowel;
  • {{{4}}} = (for alternating palatalizing verbs) the final consonant in the present stem (either "k" or "g");
  • {{{5}}} = (for alternating palatalizing verbs) the final consonant in the past stem (either "c" or "dz");
  • {{{irr}}} = the irregular stem of some irregular verbs (e.g., tecēt, gulēt);
  • {{{irr1}}} = 1 if the verb (ending in -āt) has an irregular zero-marked third person instead of -a (e.g., dziedāt, raudāt; for other cases, {{{irr1}}} is left unspecified.

If {{{3}}} = 1st, then:

  • {{{1}}} = infinitive stem (i.e., the infinitive form minus the final -t; for stems in -zt, -st, and palatalizing stems in -kt, -gt, also minus the stem-final consonant);
  • {{{2}}} = the first-person present stem;
  • {{{4}}} = the second-person present stem;
  • {{{5}}} = i if the second-person present form ends in i; otherwise, it is left unspecified.
  • {{{6}}} = the past tense stem.
  • {{{7}}} = ī if there is an additional ī between the stem and the future tense endings
  • {{{8}}} = conjugation subtype (for categorization); possible values (the default value is "irregular"):
    "pal" = palatalizing type
    "ipal" = irregular palatalizing type
    "len" = lengthening type
    "len-ps" = lengthening type (length in past tense)
    "len-pr" = lengthening type (length in present tense)
    "len-pr-k" = lengthening type (length in present tense), palatalizing k-stem
    "pals" = palatalizing type with shortening
    "spal" = semi-palatalizing type
    "spall" = semi-palatalizing type with lengthening
    "spals" = semi-palatalizing type with shortening
    "spal-s" = semi-palatalizing type, s-stem
    "spal-z" = semi-palatalizing type, z-stem
    "i/e/i" = i/e/i type
    "i/e/i-l" = i/e/i type with lengthening
    "i/e/i-g" = i/e/i type, palatalizing g-stem
    "i/e/i-gl" = i/e/i type, palatalizng g-stem with lengthening
    "i/e/i-k" = i/e/i type, palatalizing k-stem
    "i/e/i-kl" = i/e/i type, palatalizing k-stem with lengthening
    "i/e/i-ns" = i/e/i-n type with shortening
    "ie/e-jl" = ie/e-j type with lengthening
    "ie/e-n/jl" = ie/e-n/j type with lengthening
    "āj/j" = j/j type, infinitive in -āt
    "ēj/j" = j/j type, infinitive in -ēt
    "a/o/a" = a/o/a type
    "a/o/a-g" = a/o/a type, palatalizing g-stem
    "a/o/a-k" = a/o/a type, palatalizing k-stem
    "j/j-s" = j/j type with shortening
    "j/v" = j/v type
    "j/v-l" = j/v type with lengthening
    "n/j-l" = n/l type with lengthening
    "n/n-s" = n/n type with shortening
    "n/v-l" = n/v type with lengthening
    "st" = -st- type
    "st-g" = -st- type, palatalizing g-stem
    "st-k" = -st- type, palatalizing k-stem
    "st-v" = -st-/-v- type
    "st-j" = -st-/-j- type with shortening
    "s/t" = s/t (dental) type
    "s/t-l" = s/t (dental) type with lengthening
    "s/t-d" = s/t (dental) type with diphthongizing
    "s/d" = s/d (dental) type
    "s/d-l" = s/d (dental) type with lengthening
    "s/d-d" = s/d (dental) type with diphthongizing
    "ž/d" = ž/d (dental) type
    "unc" = unchanged type

Very irregular verbs bypass this template and call {{lv-conj-table}} directly (see, e.g., būt).