acault (plural acaults)
- A male who exhibits transgender behavior. This cultural identification is associated with animistic beliefs.
This word is a mistranslation of the Burmese term "achauk," which literally means "dry one," and designates men who seek other men ("homosexual" or MSM). While Coleman et al. did publish an 1992 essay (which was reprinted and referenced by various other authors) referring to the Burmese "acault," they also admitted to an "inability to speak the local languages" (314) and a "lack of training in anthropology" (320). The term "achauk" is Burmese slang and does not literally indicate someone who works as a spirit medium, which is more properly known as "nat kadaw." In Burma, these spirit mediums (nat kadaw) may be female OR male, and may or may not be transgendered (cross-dressing), although they do wear costumes during ceremonial rituals when channeling spirits called "nats" in Burma/Myanmar. Homosexuality is not necessarily implied with spirit mediumship.
- berdache and the controversy/discussion about using "berdache" vs. "two spirit" in "Various Kinds of Two-Spirit People: Gender Variance and Homosexuality in Native American communities" by Sabine Lang in Two Spirit People: Native Amreican Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Eds. Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997: 100-118
- Thai กะเทย (kàthoey)
- Burmese nat kadaw (sometimes nat gadaw) [script?].
- Brac de la Perrière, Bénédicte. “The Taungbyon Festival: Locality and Nation-Confronting in the Cult of the 37 Lords." Burma at the Turn of the 21st Century. Ed. Monique Skidmore. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005: 65-89
- “Young Activists Reflect on Identity, Community, and Diversity Among Asia’s MSM: THE TREAT ASIA REPORT INTERVIEW” TREAT Asia Report Feb 2007. TREAT Asia. amfAR. Accessed 1 July 2009. http://www.amfar.org/world/treatasia/article.aspx?id=5726
- Coleman E, Colgan P, Gooren L. Male cross-gender behavior in Myanmar (Burma): a description of the acault. Archives of Sexual Behavior 1992 Jun;21(3):313-21.