Appendix:English pronunciation

English

The following tables show the IPA and enPR/AHD symbols which are used to represent the various sounds of the English language. The sounds of Received Pronunciation (RP, UK), General American pronunciation (GenAm, US), Australian English (AuE) and New Zealand English (NZE) are shown.

For vowels in other dialects, see Wikipedia's IPA chart for English.

An image of an old version of these tables is available.

Vowels

This vowel table lists both monophthongs and diphthongs.

IPA enPR / AHD examples
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg RP Flag of the United States.svg GenAm Flag of Canada.svg CanE Flag of Australia.svg AuE Flag of New Zealand.svg NZE
ɑː ɑ ɒ ɐː ä father
æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran[1][2]
æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry
æɪ æe ā day, pain
ɑː ɑɹ ɐː är arm, bard
ɛə / ɛː(ɹ) ɛɹ âr hair, there[3]
ɛ e ĕ bed[4]
ɛɹ ĕr merry
i ē ease, see
ɪ ɘ ĭ sit, city, bit
ɪ i city, very, ready
ɪ̈ , ɨ roses
ɪə ɪɹ ɪə ĭr, îr near, here, Sirius
aɪ (ʌɪ) ɑe ɑe ī my, rice
ɒ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɒ ŏ not, wasp
əʊ əʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope
ɔə oɹ, ɔɹ ɔɹ ōr hoarse
ɔː ɔ ɒ ô law, caught
ɔː ɔɹ ôr horse
ɔɪ oe oi boy, noise
ʊ o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot
ʊə ʊɹ ʊə ʉə o͝or, ŏŏr poor, tour, tourism
u ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through
aʊ (ʌʊ) æo ou house, now
ʌ a ɐ ŭ run, enough, up
ɜː ɝ, əɹ ɝː ɜː ɵː ûr fur, bird
ə ɘ ə about
ə ɚ ə ɘ ər winner, enter[5]
  1. ^ Sometimes transcribed IPA(key): /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ See bad-lad split for more discussion of this vowel in Australian English.
  3. ^ Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries include IPA(key): /ɛː/ (Oxford University Press) and IPA(key): /eə/.
  4. ^ Sometimes transcribed IPA(key): /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  5. ^ Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ] or (for transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations) as [ə(ɹ)].

Consonants

IPA enPR / AHD examples
b b but, web, rubble
ch chat, teach, nature
d d dot, idea, nod
f f fan, left, enough
ɡ g get, bag
h h ham
ʍ (hw)[1] hw which
j joy, agile, age
k k cat, tack
x ᴋʜ loch (in Scottish English)
l l left
l̩ (əl)[2] l little
m m man, animal, him
m̩ (əm)[2] m spasm, prism
n n note, ant, pan
n̩ (ən)[2] n hidden
ŋ ng singer, ring
p p pen, spin, top, apple
ɹ[3] r run, very
s s set, list, ice
ʃ sh ash, sure, ration
t t ton, butt
θ th thin, nothing, moth
ð th this, father, clothe
v v voice, navel
w w wet
j y yes
z z zoo, quiz, rose
ʒ zh vision, treasure
  1. ^ Some phonologists dispute that /ʍ/ is a distinct phoneme in English, and use /hw/ instead.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Some phonologists dispute that /l̩,/, /n̩,/, /m̩/ are distinct phonemes in English, and use /əl/, /ən/, /əm/ instead.
  3. ^ Often written /r/, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill.

Other symbols

A stress mark is placed before the syllable that is stressed in IPA and after it in enPR / AHD.

IPA enPR
(AHD)
indicates
ˈ (ˈa) ʹ (aʹ) primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ (ˌa) ' (a') secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress), as in battleship /ˈbætl̩ˌʃɪp/
a.a a-a division between syllables
 ̩ syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]

Note: The EnPR and print AHD marks are formatted slightly differently. Online, AHD writes both ', though they do not always represent the same phoneme.

See also

References

  • 1980, A. C. Gimson, An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, edition 3rd edn., London: Edward Arnold, ISBN 0-7131-6287-2:
  • 1950, John Samuel Kenyon, American Pronunciation, edition 10th edn., Ann Arbor: George Wahr:
  • 1944/1953, John S. Kenyon; Thomas A. Knott, A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, ISBN 0-87779-047-7:
  • 2000, J. C. Wells, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, edition 2nd edn., Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 0-582-36468-X:

External links

Last modified on 5 March 2014, at 18:33