Appendix:Cognate sets for Dravidian languages

Numerals edit

The numerals from 1 to 10 in various Dravidian languages.[1]

Number Southern 1 Dravidian Southern 2 Dravidian Central Dravidian Northern Dravidian Proto-Dravidian
Tamil Malayalam Kannada Irula[2] Kodava Toda Kota Tulu Telugu Gondi Konda Kui Kuvi Kolami Naiki Ollari Dhurwa Kurukh[3] Malto Brahui
1 on̠r̠u, oṇṇŭ 5 onnŭ ondu öṇḍu ondï wïd̠ od̠ onji okaṭi,

oṇḍu

undi unṟi ro roṇḍi okkod okko, okkod okut okti, ok oṇḍ ēk, ort 7 asiṭ *onṯu (1)
2 iraṇṭu, reṇḍŭ 5 raṇḍŭ eraḍu daṇḍï ēḍ eyḏ eraḍŭ, iraḍŭ reṇḍu raṇḍ ruṇḍi rī, rīṇḍe, rīṇḍi riṇḍi, rai, ri indiŋ, eraṇḍi indiŋg, iddar, iraḷ, ernḍi ir irḍu, irul, iral eṇṛ dū, iwr 7 irāṭ *iraṇṭu (1)
3 mūn̠r̠u, mūṇŭ 5 mūnnŭ mūru mü·ṇḍu mūndï mūd̠ mūnd̠ mūji mūḍu,

mūnṟu⁸

mūṇḍ mūnṟi mūnji tīni* mūndiŋ mūndiŋ mūṇḍ mū̃duk mūnd tīn 7 musiṭ *muHnt̠u
4 nālu, nālku, nān̠ku, nālŭ 5 nālŭ, nāṅgŭ nālku nālï nōng nāng nālŭ nālugu,

nāluṅgu⁸

nāluṅg nālgi nālgi sāri* nāliŋ (nk) nāliŋ, (ch) nāli nālu(k) nlagur nāx cār 7 čār* *nāl, *nālnk(k)V, *nānk(k)V
5 aintu, añjŭ 5 añjŭ aidu añji üɀ anj ayinŭ, ainŭ aidu,

ēnu⁹

saiyuṅg, hayuṅ sēŋgi, siŋgi pāso* ayd 2 sēndi cē̃duk pañcē* pānc 7 panč* *caymtu
6 ār̠u,

āru ⁵

ār̠ŭ āru ārï ōr̠ ār āji āru,

āṟu⁸

sāruṅg, hāruṅg sajgi sō* ār 2 sādi soy* 7 šaš* *cāṯu
7 ēẓu, yēḷŭ 5 ēẓŭ ēḷu ö·ḷu ë·ḷï öw ēy, ēg ēḍŭ, ēlŭ, ēḷŭ ēḍu,

ēẓu⁸

yeḍuṅg, ēṛuṅg odgi, oḍ, oḍgi sāto* ēḍ 2 say* sāt 7 haft* *eẓu
8 eṭṭu eṭṭŭ eṇṭu ëṭu ëṭṭï öṭ eṭ enma, eṇma, eḍma enimidi,

eṇimidi⁸

aṛmur āṭo* enumadi 2 āx* āṭ 7 hašt* *eṇṭṭu
9 on̠patu 3 4, ombadŭ 5 on̠badŭ, ombadŭ 4 ombattu 4 ombay 4 wïnboθ 4 onbād 4 ormba 4 tommidi,

toṇbidi⁸

unmāk nō* tomdi 2 nāy* nau 7 nōh* *toḷ, toṇ
10 pattu pattŭ hattu pattï pot pat pattŭ padi pad dosso* padi 2 doy* das 7 dah* *paHtu
100 nūr̠u,

nūru ⁵

nūr̠ŭ nūru nūrï nūṛ nūr nūdu nūru,

nūṟu⁸

nūr pāso kōṛi* nūr dāyedoy* sau, pānc kōṛi 7 sad* *nūṯ
  1. There is an adjectival version for the number one and two in Tamil and Malayalam, oru and iru. Oru is used as an indefinite article meaning "a" and also when the number is an adjective followed by a noun (as in "one person") as opposed to when it is a noun (as in "How many are there?" "One"). Iru as in irupatu (20, literally meaning "double-ten"), iravai (20 in Telugu), or "iraṭṭi" ("double") or Iruvar (meaning two people).
  2. The Kolami numbers 5 to 10 are borrowed from Telugu.
  3. The word toṇṭu was also used to refer to the number nine in ancient Sangam Tamil texts but was later completely replaced by the word oṉpatu.
  4. These forms are derived from "one (less than) ten". Proto-Dravidian *toḷ/*toṇ (which could mean 9 or 9/10) is still used in Tamil and Malayalam as the basis of numbers such as 90 and 900, toṇṇūṟu (910*100 = 90) as well as the Kannada tombattu (9*10 = 90).
  5. Because of shared sound changes that have happened over the years in the majority of the Tamil dialects, the numbers have different colloquial pronunciations, seen here to the right of their written, formal pronunciations.
  6. In languages with words for one starts with ok(k)- it was taken from *okk- which originally meant "to be united" and not a numeral, Kui got its word from *oru which was the adjective form of *ont̠u.
  7. Apart from ort and iwr all of the remaining numbers in Malto are loaned from Indo-Aryan languages; while counting 1 and 2, ēk and dū are used and as adjectival ort and iwr are used. Despite Dravidian languages usually being decimal, older speakers use a vigesimal number system based on Munda languages where each 20 is counted as a kōṛi so 100 as 5 kōṛis. Younger speakers tend to a Indo-Aryan based decimal system.[4][5]
  8. Archaic versions of Telugu numerals were found in literature and inscriptions.
  9. ēnu of Telugu is archaic and is retained in the numerals like: padi-hēnu, yābhai (< ēn-padi) etc.
  • Words indicated * are borrowings, mainly from Indo-Iranian languages (in Brahui's case, from Balochi).
  • Telugu is the only Dravidian language to have a native word for 'thousand' : vēyi. The South Dravidian-1 languages borrowed sahasra as āyiram/sāvira.

References edit

  1. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003) The Dravidian Languages (Cambridge Language Surveys), Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 260-266.
  2. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1972), “Cognate sets for Dravidian languages”, in IRUḶA VOWELS, Indo-Iranian journals
  3. ^ Hahn, Ferb (1911), “Cognate sets for Dravidian languages”, in Kurukh grammar, Bengal Secretariat Press, Calcutta
  4. ^ Droese, Ernest (1884), “Cognate sets for Dravidian languages”, in Introduction to the Malto Language and the Malto Vocabulary, Secundra orphanage press, Sikandarabad
  5. ^ Puttaswamy, Chaithra (2009), “Cognate sets for Dravidian languages”, in Descriptive Analysis of Verbs in Malto, University of London